SCHOOL EDUCATION

The Government attaches the highest importance to the fulfilment of the Constitutional directive in respect of primary education, especially in the age-group 6-11 by the end of the Fifth Plan. In this regard a massive effort had been launched in the latter part of 1971-72 with a budget allocation of Rs. 4.4 crores under the scheme for the educated unemployed and expansion of primary education. 30,000 additional primary school teachers, 240 assistant inspectors of schools, 1,000 teachers of work experience were sanctioned to the States and Union Territories. An equal number of teachers and inspectors were sanctioned in 1972-73 with a budget allocation of Rs. 30 crores. A similar number of teachers will again be allocated in 1973-74, apart from the continuation of the posts created and filled in 1971-72, 1972-73. Thus a total number of 90,000 additional primary school teachers are expected to be in position by the end of Fourth Plan over and above the number included in the State Plans.

Two-kinds of these additional teachers were allocated to the States and Union Territories identified as backward on the basis of lowest enrolments in the age-group 6-11. The table below gives the allocations made in 1971-72 and 1972-73 under this scheme

11

12

3

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Plans are being formulated for 100 per cent enrolment of the children of the age-group 6-11 by the end of the Fifth Plan.

A separate unit deading exclusively for elementary education has been set up in the Ministry.

Reorganisation and Expansion of Science Teaching at School Stage

In 1967, the Government of India in the Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, signed an Agreement with UNESCO/ UNICEF for the Reorganisation and Expansion of the teaching of Science throughout the School stage. New syllabi and instructional materials for the primary and middle school stages prepared by the NCERT have been made available to the State Governments for adaptation/adoption and translation and subsequent use in schools. The NCERT has also, during the last three years, organised in-service training courses for the key resource persons from various States who, in turn, have conducted in-service training programmes for the teachers of selected schools. Steps have also been taken to provide UNICEF laboratory equipment to 579 key institutions, comprising all State Institutes of Science Education, A State Institutes of Education, 121 Teacher Training Colleges for Secondary teachers and 426 Teacher Training Schools for primary teachers.

The State Governments were also requested, in July 1969, to start a Pilot phase to try out the new instructional materials and, on the experience of the try-out, to introduce the new curricula in all their schools. The assistance under the Pilot phase was confined to the supply of new textbooks and Science kits, free of cost to 50 selected primary and 30 selected middle schools in each State and to the reimbursement of expenditure incurred by the State Governments in providing in-service training to the teachers of these experimental schools.

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So far, UNICEF have allocated an amount of $3,014,000 towards the implementation of the programme. Most of this allocation has already been spent in supplying equipment to training institutions and Science Kits to schools and in making reimbursement to States for training their teachers and for translating and printing the instructional materials' With a view to completing the Pilot phase and enabling the States to embark on wider introduction of the Programme, the Government of India have negotiated with the UNICEF, a further assistance of $7,022,000 for 1971-73 and have signed with them and UNESCO in April, 1972 a supplemental agreement known as "First Adden- dum to the Plan of Operations". This expanded assistance will be available for:

(a) Supplying Science laboratory equipment and selected library books for another 100 teacher training colleges and 400 teacher training schools,

(b) Supplying Science kits to 24,000 primary schools and 31,000 middle schools in a phased manner.

(c) Training of 55,000 teachers i.e. at the rate one teacher per school.

(d) Supplying supervisory vehicles at the rate of one per State,

(e) Supplying mobile laboratory vans at the rate of one per State, and

(f) Limited supply of paper for printing the new instructional materials,

The Planning Commission have agreed to treat UNICEF assistance of 7.02 million dollars as additive to the States Plans and to keep it outside the State Plan ceilings.

Consequent upon the signing of the fresh Agreement with the UNICEF and UNESCO, a draft Plan of action for introduction of the wider programme has been circulated to all the State Education Departments. The draft plan of action will be

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discussed with the respective State Educational authorities and finalised by the Central Team consisting of representatives from the Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi, Planning Commission, UNESCO's Team in NCERT and the UNICEF office. The Central team will shortly start touring the States for this purpose.

Recommendations of the State Government/Union Territory Administrations have been invited for selected Teacher Training Institutions for supply of Science laboratory equipment offered by UNICEF. They have now been advised that while making a selection of the new primary and the middle schools for introduction of the wider programme, they should ensure that only those schools are selected where a duly qualified Science teacher is available.

The State Governments have been asked to intimate their requirements of kits to enable this Ministry to decide about the distribution of 55,000 kits offered by UNICEF during the next two years.

Three thousand tonnes of paper which has so far been received from UNICEF for printing textbooks prescribed under the programme is being allotted to the States. Another 6,000 tonnes of paper will be received shortly. Further requirements of States are being ascertained.

All the State Governments have been supplied with a supervisory jeep.

Textbook Printing Presses Received as Gift from the Federal Republic of Germany

Equipment for three Printing Presses has been gifted by the Government of Federal Republic of Germany. The press at Chandigarh started production in January, 1972. The building

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for the press at Bhubaneshwar has been completed. The building for the press at Mysore is expected to be ready by middle of 1973. Orders have been placed in 1972 for equipment for the two presses at Bhubaneshwar and Mysore.

The funds for the Presses are met out of the Plan allocation of this Ministry but the presses are under the administrative control of the Chief Controller of Printing and Stationery (Ministry of Works and Housing). Budget provision for 1.973-74 is Rs. 84.84 lakhs.

Nehru Bal Pustakalaya

Under this scheme low cost supplementary readers are to be produced simultaneously in all the major languages of India. The National Book Trust who are implementing the scheme have published 23 titles. The books are available at 50 paisa each for bulk purchases by State Governments. The Budget provision for 1973-74 is Rs. 10.00 lakhs.

School Meals Programme

The programme is being operated in the State Sector by the States /Union Territories of (1) Andhra Pradesh, (2) Gujarat (3) Haryana, (4) Kerala, (5) Madhya Pradesh, (6) Maharashtra, (7) Mysore, (8) Orissa, (9) Punjab, (10) Rajasthan, (11) Tamil Nadu (12) Uttar Pradesh, (13) West Bengal, (14) Andaman & Nicobar Islands, (15) Chandigarh Administration (16) Dadra and Nagar Haveli (17) Delhi Administration, (18) Goa, Daman and Diu and (19) Pondicherry. About 127.43 lakhs beneficiaries are estimated to be covered under the programme during 1972-73 .

Maintenance of Junior Division N.C.C. Troops in Public, Residential and Central Schools

The expenditure on these troops is met by the Government of India and is shared between the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Education and Social Welfare in the ratio of 60:40. Budget estimates for 1973-74 is Rs. 4.35 lakhs.

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Desh Geetanjali

With the object of strengthening a sense of National Identity among school children a Central Scheme under the Fourth Five Year Plan known as "Desh Geetanjali" was formulated. The first phase of the scheme relating to training of teachers and selected students in the singing of the National Anthem was taken up for implementation during 1970-71. During 1972-73 further, grants totalling Rs. 2.41 lakhs were given to the States of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, for training of teachers in the singing of National Anthem.

Welfare of School Teachers

The Ministry continued to impress the State Governments about the necessity of improving the emoluments, service conditions and qualifications of teachers. Besides, the Ministry has been stressing the need for the adoption of the Triple Benefit Scheme (pension, provident fund and insurance) by the State Governments for teachers in aided institutions. The State Governments of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Kerala, Mysore, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have since implemented this scheme while others are considering the matter. In so far as the Union Territories are concerned, the Government of India have already sanctioned the scheme with effect from April, 1965.

The Children of teachers are provided free education, to a varying extent, in the States and Union Territories.

National Awards to Teachers

The scheme of National Awards to Teachers was introduced in 1958 with the object of giving public recognition to teachers of outstanding merit. During 1972, awards were given to 99 selected teachers of Primary and Secondary schools as well as Sanskrit Pathshalas/Tols run on traditional lines. The awards carry a certificate of merit and cash payment of Rs. 1,000. With 99 awards of the year 1972, the total number of National Awardee Teachers so far comes to 1301.

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National Council of Educational Research & Training

A brief description of important activities undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training during the year under report is given in the following paragraphs :

(a) Science Education

: The qualitative improvement of science and mathematics education at various levels of school education continued to receive priority during the year. The council assisted the implementation of UNESCO-UNICEF assisted pilot project for improvement of Science Education.

Under its programme of curriculum development, production and printing of textual materials for the primary stage was completed. Most of the middle school textual materials on science and mathematics was revised. Besides, most of the work in the corresponding areas for the first two years of the higher secondary stage was completed and the printed books are expected to be out shortly.

A set of textbooks and science kits produced by the NCERT were presented to the Education Minister of Bangladesh during his visit to India in June, 1972.

A National Science Exhibition for Children was organised by the Council in collaboration with Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund at New Delhi from November, 11 to 19, 1972.

A ten-day Asian Seminar on School Science Equipment organised in collaboration with UNICEF and the Government of India, in which delegates from 16 countries participated.

The National Science Talent Search Scheme was continued during the year. Under this scheme, about 1,000 candidates were interviewed, of which 346 were finally selected for scholarships. The total number of scholars receiving NSTS awards at different levels now is 1,071, of which 621 were at the undergraduate level, 319 at the postgraduate level and 131 at the Ph.D. level. Seventeen summer schools were organised during

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May-June 1972 for the undergraduate awardees at different university centres. About 275 postgraduate awardees were placed in the project- oriented Summer Programmes at 35 National laboratories and institutes of advanced studies in different parts of the country. Work was initiated on development of suitable tests for Creativity in science.

(b) Textbook Programmes:

The Crash Programme for Evaluation of School Textbooks from the point of view of national integration was continued during the year. The evaluation of language textbooks in three states and that of Social Studies in four States was completed. These reports will be placed before the Expert Committee for preparing final recommendations for implementation by the concerned States. The conceptual literature on the preparation and evaluation of textbooks in History, Geography, Mathematics and General Science was published.

A short-term training course was organised for the textbook

authors and evaluators of nationalised textbooks from the State of Kerala.

A comparative study of the language textbooks at the primary level was undertaken. A study of the exercises in language textbooks was also initiated.

As a part of the programme of International Book-Year 1972, a National Seminar on School Textbooks was organised at Delhi in December, 1972. Among other things, modern management techniques as applied to textbook production and the role of publicity and public relations in regard to nationalised textbooks were also discussed. As a part of this programme. State level seminars on important aspects of preparation and production of school textbooks were also organised during the year.

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(c) Examination Reform Programme :

A study to evaluate the Internal Assessment Programme was undertaken in collaboration with Rajasthan Board of Secondary Education. The findings of the study resulted in the further improvement of the programme.

Courses for the training of paper-setters and resource persons in the improvement of written examinations were organised for the Boards of Gujarat, Mysore, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The New Area of diagnostic testing was added to the programme of examination reform and three workshops were organised for preparing diagnostic tests in Hindi, English and Mathematics.

The Boards of Secondary Education of Bihar, Orissa and Punjab were provided academic guidance and help in developing a phased programme of examination reform. Similar help was also rendered to the Union Territory Administration of Goa, Daman and Diu.

(d) National Prize Competition and Children's literature :

The 17th competition was conducted during the year. At this competition two prizes were given for Hindi books and one each for books in each regional language,

(e) Rural Talent Search Programme:

The NCERT provides academic guidance to the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations for the operation of this scheme. During the year under report, the State of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Mysore, Orissa, Punjab and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry were given such guidance.

(f) Pre-primary Education Programmes:

The curriculum for Pre-primary teacher education was revised in the light of comments received from the selected number of specialists in this area.

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Data collected from the selected pre-primary schools in different States were studied with a view to preparing a book entitled "Promoting better child growth through pre-schools."

The Hindi version of the handbook "Programmes and activities for Balwadis" was completed during the year.

(g) Primary Education Programmes:

Under the Project of developing minimum curriculum standards, the Department of Pre-Primary and Primary Education completed the work pertaining to the delineation of educational experiences with a view to achieving the learning outcomes finalised earlier.

A study of the Home Science syllabi prescribed by different States for classes I to IV was undertaken during the year. Based on this study, it is proposed to prepare a draft outline of a balanced home science syllabus for these classes.

A hon Action Programmes was organised during the year.

A pilot project for the improvement of teaching-learning process in multiple-class teaching situations in selected schools of Haryana State was undertaken during the year. A write-up pertaining to the materials for classes III & IV was also prepared.

The 11th National Seminar on Elementary Education was organised in April, 1972. State level seminars on principles and programmes of girls education were also conducted during the year.

In order to measure reading ability of the primary school children, a research study was undertaken to determine the reading abilities of children of classes I to V through specially prepared Reading Ability Tests in Hindi. As a first step,

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standardized list of vocabulary in Hindi was prepared. Vocabulary pertaining to the spoken, written and reading areas for children of classes I to V was collected and analysed.

The Tribal Education Unit attached to the Department of Pre- primary and Primary Education organised two training courses in Tribal life and culture for Education officers and primary school teachers posted in tribal areas.

A book on 'National and Tribal Heroes' was also revised by the Unit during the year.

A workshop was organised to consider various aspects connected with the preparation of text-books in tribal dialects.

Research studies to determine the impact of Action Programmes on reducing educational wastage among school children from tribal areas and to measure aspirations and motives of tribal youth were also undertaken.

(h) Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education :

During the year under report, the Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education conducted 19 research investigations in the areas of Test Development Guidance and Counselling, Child Development, Social Psychology, Adolescence, Learning Talent, Educational Achievement, History of Education, Comparative Education and Philosophy of Education.

Under the extension programme, the Department conducted six seminars/workshops for improving the knowledge of teacher educators. One such workshop was on Sociometry in Classroom. In this workshop, the importance of knowing the 'Syntality' of classroom by the teacher besides knowing the 'Personality' of the individual child and the 'subject-matter' was emphasised.

(i) Social Sciences and Humanities: (i) Language Programmes:

Two Hindi Textbooks for Higher Secondary classes 'Kavya Bharati' and 'Gadhya Bbarati' were finally edited.

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A graded list of useful words in Hindi was edited and cy- clostyled.

Revised Syllabuses in Hindi as mother-tongue and as second language were developed.

Consultancy services for the improvement of syllabus and instructional methods were provided to the State of Rajasthan, Anglo- Indian Schools of West Bengal and schools run by the Central Atomic Energy Commission, Trombay.

A brochure on 'The needed research in language teaching and learning in India' was prepared and finalised in the Working Group Meeting of Experts in June, 1972 at Bhubaneswar.

A study of the present position of languages in the school curriculum in India was finalised.

A graphemic analysis of the Devanagari Script was completed and final report of the study was written.

A study of the Problems of teaching spoken Hindi to Malayalam speaking children was undertaken as a part of the ReSearch Project entitled 'A Linguistic Analysis and Description of the Phonological Variations in Standard Hindi'. The data for the study were collected, transcribed and tabulated. The final report is being written.

A Script Writers' Workshop for developing Language Laboratory Drills in Bengali as a second language was organised at Calcutta from June 1-30, 1972.

Tape copies of Language Laboratory Lessons were made for "Teacher Training College, Rohtak; Institute of English, Chandigarh and Army Training College, Jabalpur.

A prototype of language laboratory was prepared through Messrs Bharat Electronics Ltd.

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A summer Institute in Applied Linguistics and Language% Teaching was organised at the Regional College of Education, Bhubaneswar from June 5 to July 2, 1972. The course in the Summer Institute was conducted at two levels, viz., at Basic level and advanced level.

(ii) Social Sciences Programmes :

The Department of so- cial Sciences and Humanities worked with the States of Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh in training their Resource Persons and assisted them to revise their Social Studies Syllabus.

The English version of "Modem Independent India" and "India and Europe"-text-books for middle schools, were prepared.

A new curriculum for classes I to X according to the proposed 10- year schooling programme was prepared.

A syllabus in Sociology for classes IX. X & XI was also, prepared for the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi.

The Department organised an orientation course-cum-workshop for teacher educators in Poona for the States of Madhya Pradesh. Madras, Gujarat and Union Territory of Goa, Daman & Diu.

A State level course in Social Studies for teacher (educators. of Elementary Teacher Training Institutes of the State of Rajasthan was conducted.

(iii) Population Education Programmes:

During the year under report, Population Education Cell of the Department of Social Sciences and Humanities organised three workshops at Dehra Dun, Tirupati and Delhi with a view to developing Instructional Materials on Population Education.

(j) Audio-Visual Aids in Education:

The Department of Teaching Aids organised a number of training programmes in audio- visual education.

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Under its production programme, the Department produced three filmstrips on 'Road Safety' 'Making 3-D Teaching Aids in Plaster of Paris' and 'Jammu & Kashmir' and also a film entitled "Energy and Its Transformation". The film was produced in collaboration with the Department of Science Education and Film Institute of Poona. In addition, eleven portraits of eminent Indian Scientists were also finalised and published during the year. A number of photographic prints, slides, posters and illustrations, etc. for various programmes of other Departments of the National Institute of Education were also produced by the Department of Teaching Aids.

(k) National Integration Through Education:

The National Integration Unit in the NCERT has undertaken a major project to inculcate the spirit of National unity among students and teachers through educational activities. During the year under report, 16 inter-State camps for students and two inter-State camps for teachers and one for Principals of Schools were organised. In addition, 'Our India' project, which is a part of the overall project of National Integration through education was being implemented in 90 schools. About 80 new schools were selected during the year, of which 34 agreed to implement the project.

(l) Teacher Education:

In its programme of promoting research in teacher training institutions, the Department of Teacher Education organised the fifth Seminar on Planning Research Projects at Delhi in December, 1972 for the teacher educators of Northern region. The Seminar was attended by 13 participants.

297 Experimental projects in schools were approved during 1972-73 and grants to the tune of Rupees one Lakh were sanctioned.

The Seminar Readings Project was also continued during the year. 121 essays were received from different States for the national level contest. Out of these, 21 were selected for giving national awards.

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Information on Innovated Practices and ideas tried by about 100 teacher training colleges in the country during the year 1970-71, was collected and analysed.

The third revised edition of the Directory of postgraduate teacher education institutions and courses in India was prepared. The Directory is being processed for publication.

Under the lndo-GDR Cultural Exchange Programme 1971-73, Dr.D.Blandow,an Expert from the GDR was invited for a little ove three months i.e. from 1st July to 9th October, 1972 to work with the Department of Teacher Education and Regional Colleges of Education in the area of Work-Experience in teacher education.'

(m) Training Colleges:

The four Regional Colleges of Education at Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar and Mysore continued to conduct their four-year and one-year courses in teacher education. The one-year M.Ed. Course at the Regional Colleges of Education, Bhopal and Bhubaneswar, and the one-year M.Ed. course in Science Education started at the Regional College of Education, Ajmer in July, 1971 were continued during the year. All the four Colleges organised a Summer Schoolcum-Correspondence Course leading to B. Ed. degree for clearing the backlog of untrained teachers in the country. The en- rolment during the year at these colleges was as follows:

        
                                          
Ajmer Bhopal Bhuba- Mysore Total neswar
Pre-Service Regular 496 535 541 454 2,026 Course. Summer School-Cum- 96 201 200 210 710 Correspondence Course leading to B.Ed. degree.
Total 592 739 741 664 2,736

All the four Regional Colleges of Education organised a number of in-service education programmes for the benefit of teachers and teacher educators in their respective regions.

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The four-year course in teacher education in the Regional colleges was suitably modified, so as to enable the teachers to teach work-experience in addition to their special subjects. In addition, the Regional Colleges of Education also offered educational programmes for out-of-school youth during the year.

The Central Institute of Education in Delhi continued to offer regular courses leading to the B.Ed. and M.Ed. degrees of the University of Delhi. Besides, a part-time two year M.Ed. evening course and a research course in education leading to the Ph.D. degree of the Delhi University were also continued. The total enrolment in the Institute was 185 which was composed of 148 B.Ed. regular course, 22 M.Ed. regular course and 15 M.Ed. part-time evening course. Three of the Ph.D. students of the Institute were declared eligible for receiving Ph.D. Degree in Education. The Institutes also organised a number of in-service education programmes during the year under report.

(n) Summer Institutes in Science :

For the first time, the NCERT organised 83 Summer Institutes, 69 of a unitary nature, 4 sequential institutes, 4 UNICEF institutes for primary school teacher educators, 4 UNICEF institutes for secondary school teacher educators and 2 on project technology. All these institutes were organised during May-June, 1972. Formerly, these institutes were organised by the University Grants Commission in collaboration with the National Council for Science Education and NCERT. From the summer of 1972, the entire responsibility for the organisation of these summer institutes was transferred to the NCERT. During the war under report, a follow- up programme was also chalked out to improve the quality of Summer Science Institutes.

(o) Grant-in-Aid for Research' Projects (GARP):

The Council continued to give grants to educational institutions for carrying out research projects. Financial assistance was also given to institutions/individuals for publication of outstanding research work in education.

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(p) Scheme of Assistance to Professional Educational Or- ganisations :

The Council has been operating the scheme of financial assistance to professional educational organisations for the past few years. The objectives of the scheme are promotion of educational activities, production of educational literature, and organisation of seminars, workshops, conferences, educational exhibitions, etc. The Council continued to extend grants under this scheme to voluntary professional educational organisations during the year.

(q) Publication Programmes:

During 1972-73, the Council brought out 152 titles.

One of the Supplementary Readers of the Council entitled "Non- flowering plants of the Himalayas" won the state award (Certificate of Merit) for excellence in printing from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The Jacket of another Supplementary Reader "Romance of Theatre" won the first prize in the World Book Fair held at Delhi in March-April, 1972.

Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan

Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (or the Central Schools, Orga- nisation) administers 156 Kendriya Vidyalayas or Central Schools in the country-which owe their origin to a recommendation of the Second Central Pay Commission which suggested the provision of schools with common syllabi and media of instruction in all parts of the country for the benefit of the children of transferable Central Government employees. The Vidyalayas thus bring together children from different parts of the country speaking different languages and help them to grow in amity and friendship.

One of the main objectives of the Kendriya Vidyalaya Scheme is to impart quality education through common media, syllabuses, textbooks and examinations. Their high standards in

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academic achievements can be judged from the very good results obtained by them at the AR India Higher Secondary Examination as well as from the many prizes which they have won in the sphere of education, sports and cultural activities. This year the pass percentage of the Vidyalayas candidates was 92.50 per cent as against the Board's pass percentage of 74.5 per cent. Out of 118 Kendriya Vidyalayas which sent up students for the Board's examination, 48 Kendriya Vidyalayas obtained 100 per cent results and 10 students secured meritorious positions. The Vidyalaya students also made their mark at other competitive examinations. In the National Science Talent Search Examinations conducted by the National Council of Educational Research and Training in January, 1972, 49 students of Kendriya Vidyalayas have been selected for the award of scholarships and certificates of merit. In the IIT competitive examinations, 82 students of Kendriya Vidyalayas got success and in N.D.A. examinations 25 students were successful. The Kendriya Vidyalayas have gained popularity within the short period of their existence. The number of students on their rolls now stands at 1,06,028 while that of teachers at 5,068.

The budget estimates for 1973-74 is Rs. 6,70,93,000 and revised estimates for 1972-73 is Rs.- 5,70,16,000.

Central Tibetan Schools Administration

The Central Tibetan Schools Administration is an autonomous organisation set up by the Government of India, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare in 1961 and registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The Union Education Minister is its chairman and the representative of the Government of India, and his Holiness the Dalai Lama and the General Secretary, Central Relief Committee (India) are members. The members of the Society are also the members of its Governing Body.

The main object of the Administration is to establish and to carry on the Administration and the management of the Schools/Institutions set up for the education and/or training of Tibetan Refugee Children.

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The Administration has been running five Residential Schools, one Educational-cum-Vocational Institute and seven day schools. The residential Schools are located at Simla, Mussoorie, Darjeeling, Dalhousie and Pachmarhi. The Residential School at Pachmarhi was merged with the other four Schools in September 1972. The Day Schools are located at Kalimpong, (W. Bengal), Bylakuppe and Mundgod (Mysore), Chandragiri (Orissa), Mainpat (M.P.), Tezu and Changland (NEFA). Apart from this the Administration has started four new day schools during 1972. These are located at Kurseong. Dharmsala, Patlikulh (H.P.) and Bhandara (Maharashtra). In order to cope up with the increase in staff for lower classes, the Central Tibetan Schools Administration had employed 26 Tibetans (who have passed Higher Secondary Examination) as teachers on an ad hoc basis on an experimental basis.

The number of students in the schools was about 4,368 during the year. Two schools teach up to class VII, two up to class VIII, three up to Class IX, two up to class X and four up to Primary Classes. Four schools have prepared the students, this year, for the Higher Secondary Examination. In 1972, 94 students from Central Schools for Tibetans at Mussoorie, Dalhousie, Darjeeling and Pachmarhi, appeared for the Higher Secondary Examination conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education.

This year 9 fresh scholarships have been awarded to Tibetan Students for higher studies. One has been admitted in Government College, Chandigarh and eight in the Colleges in Darjeeling. The Administration continued to give scholarships to five Tibetan girl students for 'Two-year Teacher Training Course' at St. Bede's College, Simla.

This Administration continued to give grants-in-aid to the following institutions engaged in the education of Tibetan Children :

(i) Tibetan Homes Foundation, Mussoorie.

(ii) Inche School, Gangtok, Sikkim.

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(iii) Kalakshetra, Madras.

(iv) Tibetan Nehru Memorial Foundation Primary School, Dehradun.

(v) Tibetan Refugee Self-help Centre, Darjeeling.

(vi) Chakrata School, Dehradun.

(vii) Auroville, Pondicherry; and

(viii) Tibetan Industrial Rehabilitation Society, New Delhi.

The budget estimate for 1973-74 is Rs. 51,47,000 and revised estimate for 1972-73 is Rs. 47,75,000.

Bal Bhavan Society, New Delhi

Bal Bhavan Society, India, is a recreational-cum-educational centre for children. It provides children with experiences and activities not otherwise available to them. It offers planned programmes not only to children but to teachers and parents also. Its museum section organises exhibitions and prepares study kits to deepen children's understanding on various topics he learns at school. It also makes them aware of the basic realities of their surroundings. The following exhibitions were organised during 1972 at the Society's gallery:

(a) Exhibition on Ancient India.

(b) Exhibition on "Development of Sources of Light."

(c) Exhibition on Olympic Games.

(d) Exhibition of Bal Bhavan Children's work.

(e) Exhibition on 'Staff Work'.

Two seasonal festival-Festival of Rain and Spring-were celebrated. Thousands of children participated. In these festivals, the Bal Bhavan welcomed and involved children of Delhi.

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18 Workshops dealing with paintings, graphics, college construction, puppet-making and manipulation, handicarfts, woodwork, clay models, Batik work and photography were successfully conducted for the benefit of parents and teachers.

Pattern of Education

At the meetings of the Central Advisory Board of Education and of the State Education Secretaries held in September, 1972, it was decided to adopt a uniform 10+2+3 pattern of education (10 years of general schooling 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course) throughout the country. The States of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Mysore have already introduced this pattern.

Scheme of Establishing Model Schools

The Ministry has drawn up a scheme to establish Model Community Schools for primary education at the rate of one per block and Model Comprehensive Higher Secondary Schools at the rate of one per district. These schools are intended to be pace-setters and will have a modem curriculum, and method of evaluation. They will also provide 'extension services' to the neighbouring schools. They will provide good education to talented children coming from the most under- privileged sections of the community. These model schools are to be provided with adequate hostel facilities and at least 25 per cent of their seats are to be reserved for children coming from the socially and economically deprived groups who would be paid suitable maintenance grants.

The Central Advisory Board of Education at its meeting held on September 18-19, 1972 has approved the establishment of such schools.

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Educational Concessions to the Children of the Officers and men of the Armed Forces killed or disabled

Following the Indo-Pakistan conflict of December, 1971, Government decided to meet the full cost of education up to the end of the first degree course of children of all personnel of the Defence and Para-military forces killed or permanently disabled during the hostilities. The concessions sanctioned are as follows :

(a) Complete exemption from tuition and other fees levied by the educational institutions concerned as well as charges levied for the school bus maintained by the school and actual fares "for railway pass for students or bus fare certified by Head of Institution.

(b) Grants to meet hostel charges in full for those studying in boarding schools and colleges.

(c) Full cost of books and stationery, and

(d) Full cost of uniform where this is compulsory.

On the request of the Central Government, State Governments of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala Mysore, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Goa, Daman and Diu,, Laccadive and Pondicherry, have also announced similar educational concessions for children reading in the educational institutions under their control.

Educational Technology Project

The Educational Technology Project which was approved during the year for providing integral instruction by making full use of films, radio broadcasts, the expanded television coverage of the country and the new educational techniques such as video/audio recorders, programmed learning etc., is intended

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to stimulate education at all Levels and to bring about qualitative improvement in education. it is also expected to contribute towards the reduction of wastage at the school level, particularly at the primary level, by making the primary school level, particularly more interesting and effective, by supplying audio-visual instructional materials and training of personnel required.

An Educational Technology Centre is being set up in Delhi under this Project. The Centre will be concerned with the development of curriculum, preparation of basic scripts for films, radio and television lessons, preparation of graphics, multipurpose kits, models and production of audio-visual instructional materials.

It will also train personnel for producing Educational Television programmes and 16 mm teaching films.

Besides the ET Centre, Educational Technology Cells are being set up in various states in a phased manner. To begin with, sanction has been accorded for the establishment of such cells in Maharashtra, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab. Similar cells will be set up in other states during the next two years. These cells will assist in the production of instructional material, suitable for their respective areas, and in the training programmes of certain categories of personnel required for the introduction of Educational Technology in schools. These cells will also coordinate work with the local All India Radio Stations.

To administer the programme, an Educational Technology Cell has been set up in the Ministry or Education and Social Welfare. This cell will coordinate the activities of the various Central Government Departments and the State Governments on the one hand and foreign Governments and international agencies, on the other.

The Programme which is estimated to cost Rs. 114 lakhs involve UNDP assistance of the order of Rs. 58 lakhs which will be given in the shape of equipment required for the Educational Technology Centre, training facilities needed, for Indian

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personnel and the services of a few experts on Educational Technology. The Indian expenditure which will be of the order of Rs. 56 lakhs, will be provided by the Ministry of Education.

25th Anniversary of India's Independence Celebrations in Schools

With a view to creating an impact on the minds of the school children and to emphasise the main instruments for preserving Independence by strengthening democratic life and national unity by involving villagers, students and teachers in the 25th anniversary of India's Independence celebrations the Union Ministry have initiated action to implement the following programmes in schools all over the country with the cooperation of the Education Departments of State/Union Territory Governments and the NCERT:

(a) Betterment of Village Schools:-Under this programme, there is a proposal for distribution of materials costing Rs. 80 per primary single-teacher school per block. The idea is to bring up schools to a minimum norm as regards facilities. A list of minimum equipment for primary schools has been circulated to State Governments.

(b) Cleanliness Campaign in School:-A scheme has been drawn up to have a special cleanliness campaign in schools all over the country by observing "Cleanliness Year" in 1972-73. The campaign will consist of 'Personal cleanliness' 'Class-room cleanliness', 'School cleanliness' and 'Community environmental cleanliness'. Under the scheme an expenditure of Rs. 12.75 lakhs is to be incurred by the Government of India as award of prizes/certificates to the best student and best class in each school, and a shield is to be given to best school in each district.

(c) "Know Your Country" Campaign School Project:Under this programme, there is a proposal to, produce 50,000 pictorial packages for distribution to schools all over the country. There is also a proposal for active participation of students

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and teachers in. different schools through carefully selected projects and assignments linked with the progress made during the 25 years of freedom at village,, block or district level. A local committee of parents, teachers and students will undertake such products/assignments and to arrange their exhibitions. Some of the selected sayings and quotations of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru will be displayed in the above exhibitions in schools and also explained in details in talks.

(d) Book on Constitution for School Children:-Under this programme, the NCERT will bring out a booklet on "Constitution for Young Readers" for mass distribution.

Financial Allocations

The allocations for the major programmes included in this chapter for the year 1972-73 and 1973-74 are given below:

        
                                                                    (Rs. in thousands)
                                          
S.No. Item Provision for 1972-73 Budget Estimates Original Revised for 1973-74
1.Scheme for providing employment to educated unemployed-Expansion, of Elementary Education For States 2,94,612 2,92,651 For U.Ts. 5,388 7,349 2.UNICEF Science teaching (Pilot Project) 640 165 600 3.Educational Technology Programme 1,350 400 1,200 4.Textbook printing presses 9,443 5,148 8,484 5.Nehru Bal Pustakalaya 1,000 1,000 1,000 6.Desh Geetanjali 270 270 250 7.National Council of Educational Re- search and Training Plan 15,000 12,283 12,000 Non-Plan 16,840 16,602 19,000 8. Bal Bhavan Society, New Delhi 715 713 735 9.Educational concessions to the Chi- ldren of officers and men of the Armed Forces killed or disabled. 1,000 200 300 10.Maintenance of Junior division N.C.C. Troops in Public, Residential and Central Schools 435 435 435