LANGUAGES

To promote the overall educational and cultural advancement of the country it is necessary to adopt concerted measured to develop all the major languages of India.

The Government are therefore pursuing a programme, in collaboration with the State Governments wherever necessary, for the coordinated development of Hindi and other Indian for the coordinated development of Hindi and other Indian Languages (including Sanskrit) so that they grow rapidly and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge. Due emphasis is also being given to the study of English and other Foreign languages. This chapter highlights the efforts made by the Union Ministry in this direction.

Scientific and Technical Terminology for Indian Languages

During the year under review the Central Hindi Directorate have prepared glossaries of technical terms in the fields of Science, Humanities, Administration, Railways, Medicine, Planning & Physical Anthropology. Consolidated glossaries in the fields of Defence and Agriculture are under preparation. About twenty thousand words of various engineering Branches have been processed through organisation of Commitees and Seminars. Definitions of 29281 terms have also been prepared.

So far as Urdu terminology is concerned, the Tarraqui-e-Urdu Board has organised 50 Seminars at various places, in the country to finalise Urdu terminology relating to Humanities, Social Sciences and Science subjects. So far 55,000 terms have been tentatively finalised in 14 different, subjects. The Board has fixed a target of 1 lakh terms for finalisation by June, 1973

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Central Institute of English & Foreign Languages, Hyderabad

The Institute, fully financed by the Government of India was set up in 1958 as Central Institute of English, an autonomous body managed by a Board of Governors. In 1972, it was renamed Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, to provide for the training of teach- ers, translators and interpreters in foreign languages, in addition to English.

An outline of the significant activities of the Institute during 1972-73 is given below :

(a) Academic Programme : The academic programme of the Institute is carried on by the following departments and units : (i) Department of Phonetics and Spoken English: (ii) Department of Methods; (iii) De- partment of Linguistics and contemporary English; (iv) Department of English Literature (v) Department of Materials Production; (vi) De- partment of Extension Services; (vii) Radio Unit; (viii) Correspond- ence Course Unit; (ix) Department of German.

It is proposed to set up Departments of French and Russian in 1973, and Department of Spanish, Chinese and Japanese in the 5th Five Year Plan period.

The academic session of 1972-73 began on July 1, 1972. 46 candidates were admitted to the Diploma Courses this year. Out of them 44 participants qualified for the second term of the Diploma Courses which started on 1st December, 1972.

(b) Intensive Course in Linguistics and Phonetics : 33 teachers of English from Universities and Colleges attended the Intensive Course in Linguistics and Phonetics organised by the Institute from June 1 to 30, 1972.

(c) Special Course in English, for Foreign Students : As in the past three years, a special course in English for foreign students was arranged by the Institute from 15th March to 30th June, 1972. Out of the 16 foreign students who took the examination at the end of the course 14 qualified for the Certificate of proficiency.

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(d) Evening Courses in Spoken and Written English : Two 4-month part time evening courses, one in Spoken English and the other in Written English, were held at the Institute from September, 1972 to February, 1973 for Postgraduate students of Osmania University and other graduates in Hyderabad who wish to improve their proficiency in Spoken and Written English. 44 students including 27 from Osmania University attended the course in Spoken English and 45 students including 22 from Osmania University attended the course in Written English.

(e) Correspondence Course for the Certificate in Teaching of English : A Correspondence Course for the Certificate in the teaching of English was started this year. 274 candidates were admitted to the course.

(f) Research : The Institute conducts a one-year Postgraduate Research Diploma Course in the teaching of English. 12 Research Fellowships of Rs. 500/- per month are offered to encourage research on the problems of English language teaching in India. In addition, Research Associates are appointed from time to time to assist in the projects taken up by individual departments.

The Institute has been recognised by a number of universities as a centre for research leading to the award of their Ph.D. degrees.

(g) Materials Production : The following books were completed and sent to the N.C.E.R.T., New Delhi for publication and also to the Commissioner, Central Schools Organization for use in their schools:

(1) Workbooks for Classes. V, VIII, IX and X (Special Series)

(2) Workbooks for Class VIII (General Series)

(3) Teacher's Guides for Class V and VIII (Special Series)

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Work is in progress on an Intensive Course in Reading for College entrants, Language through Literature, Book II and a book of poetry selections.

The Institute organized a 5-day Seminar-cum-Workshop on materials production from December 11 to 15, 1972. 33 delegates including CIEFL staff attended the seminar.

(h) Radio Unit : The Radio Unit of the Institute continued to broadcast lessons for Classes VI], VIII, IX and X, in Andhra Pradesh according to the schedule of All India Radio, Hyderabad. On an average 12 lessons were broadcast every month.

(i) Seminar on Indian English : The Institute held a Seminar on Indian English from July 29 to 31, 1972. 25 eminent literary critics, linguists and creative writers attended the Seminar in addition to a number of. distinguished invitees.

Extension Services : In order to ensure wide dissemination of information and the adoption of modern methods and techniques of teaching English at secondary and university levels all over the country, the Institute, through its Extension Services Department, keeps in close touch with the academic and administrative bodies connected with English Language Teaching in India. With its wide network of contacts, the Institute has been able to contribute significantly towards bringing about reforms in the teaching of English in India. The extension services of the Institute include: Co-operation with ELTIs, Collaboration with UGC in the organization of its Summer Institue, organizing seminars and conferences to discuss problems and principles of English Language Teaching in India, Consultancy Services to Universities, Colleges and other educational and professional bodies, and organisation of special courses for specific purposes. The Extension Services Department also runs an Archives and Information. Centre where the latest papers articles, theses and dissertations on various aspects of ELT are collected. The materials are available for educational institutions and research scholars.

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The Institute has also prepared a Directory of ELT experts in the country which is periodically updated.

As in the past, the Institute actively collaborated with the UGC in the organisation of Summer Institutes in English language . 13 experts from the Institute gave courses at 14 centres in different parts of the country.

(k) Evaluation Conferences : The Summer Institutes Evaluation Conference was held at the Central Institute of English & Foreign Languages on August 28-29, 1972. The conference reviewed the achievements and shortcomings of the Summer Institutes 1972 and made important recommendations regarding follow-up work and the objectives location, timetable, syllabuses for the 1973 Summer Institutes.

(l) Department; of German: The preliminary' work on setting up a Department of German was begun in early 1973 and it is expected that the work in the Department would come in full swing by the middle of the year. The main functions of the Department, will be to train teachers of the German language and to run courses for interpreters.

PROMOTION OF OTHER MODERN INDIAN LANGUAGES

Assistance to Voluntary Organisations

This Scheme has been in operation from the middle: of the Second Five Year Plan. Under the Scheme, grants up to 50% of the expenditure on approved items are sanctioned for bringing out publications like encyclopaedias, bilingual dictionaries, books of knowledge, publica- tions bringing out similarities among regional languages, catalogues of manuscript and books of cultural, literary, indological, linguistic and scientific interest. Grants on the same basis are also given for holding multilingual literary conference, seminars, book exhibitions etc. Assistance is also extended by way of purchase of copies of the printed publications in regional languages on expert advice.

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Prizes

A further step towards the development of regional languages was the introduction of a prize scheme under which prizes are awarded to authors for writing books/ manuscripits in any Indian language other than Hindi, Sanskrit and their mother-tongue. In the year 1970- 71, 7 prizses were awarded to distinguished writers for their books in various Indian languages other than Hindi, Sanskrit and English.

CULTURAL-CUM-LANGUAGE ORGANISATIONS

Abul Kalam Azad Oriental Research Institute, Hyderabad

Aims and Objects

The Abul Kalam Azad oriental Research Institute was established in 1959 with the object of conducting research in History, Philosophy, Culture, Languages and other allied areas of study.

The Institute has published 13 research works and 10 Urdu books and 7 works are under print.

The Institute has a well equipped library containing books and manuscripts. It has undertaken a survey of manuscript collections in Hyderabad a city in order to prepare a catalogue of the manuscripts.

Financial assistance to the tune of Rs. 12,000 is given every year to the Institute for the promotion of its activities.

Anjuman Tarraqi Urdu. Hind, Aligarh

the Anjuman Tarraqi Urdu, Hind is a literary organisation wedded to the cause of promotion of Urdu and has done substantial work in this direction.

A budget provision of Rs. 2.88 lakhs was made for 1972-73 for this, organisation, and an amount of Rs. 1,42,38,500 already been released by December 31, 1972.

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Tarraqui-e-Urdu Board

The Tarraqui-e-Urdu Board set up by the Government of India has been entrusted with the responsibility of production of Standard Literature in Urdu on the various subjects; including Science subjects, Children Literature, reference work, Encyclopaedia, Basic Textbooks and Production of the books from primary classes to University Level. Funds to the extent of Rs. One crore spread over the Fourth Plan period of five years, 1969-70 to 1973-74, have been made available to the Tarraqui-e-Urdu Board.

The Board had selected 620 titles including text books for translation. and original writing. Other projects undertaken by the Board include the preparation of English-Urdu and Urdu-Urdu dictionaries and compilation of a bibliography of the existing Urdu literature relating to Humanities, Social Sciences and Science subjects.

THE CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF INDIAN LANGUAGES MYSORE

The Institute was established in July, 1968 to assist and coordinate the development of Indian languages, to bring about their essential unity through scientific study and interlinguistic research and to promote the mutual enrichment of the languages and thus contribute towards the emotional integration of the people of India.

During the year the Institute undertook the following activities;

(a) Study of Tribal and Border Languages : Field work in Ao-Naga, Angami, Soma, Pidgin Naga Thadou, Manipuri, Tripuri, Laddakhi, Shina, Balti, Brokshat, Kuvi, Kurux, Malto and Munderi languages in the regions of Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura Ladakh, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh was conducted to collect data on Tribal and border languages.

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(b) Socio-linquistic Survey Project.-A pre-study team of four scholars of the Institute lead by a Deputy Director conducted a pilot survey under the sociolinguistic survey of Himachal Pradesh. The team toured Simla, Nahan, Mandi, Kulu, Dharmasala and Chamba, covering Sirmauri, Mahasu, Mandoali, Kangri, Kulvi and Chamoali dialect areas and collected data on the basis of specially prepared word and sen- tence lists. The data thus elicited are being analysed to prepare an overall grammar and lexicon for Western Pahari dialects.

The team administered a language use and language function questionaire to assess the current situation and thus get empirical data for a better formulation of language development plans in the area.

The reports of field studies conducted by the participants of the National Seminar-cum-workshop in Sociolinguistics held in the Insti- tute in May-June 1972, is being edited for publication under the title "The Sociolinguistic Study of Mysore City".

(c) Project on Composite Sanskrit Course through the Mother longue.-This Project aims at the preparation of curriculum and teaching materials for a 100 'hour course in Sanskrit to be incorporated in the Hindi mother tongue curriculum at the High School level. The review lessons on the first ten lessons and lessons 11-15 have been prepared.

(d) Bilingual Hindi Project.--Studies on written varieties of kannada-Hindi, Telugu-Hindi, Tamil-Hindi and MalayalamHindi, have been finalized. Data pertaining to the spoken variety of Telugu-Hindi are being analysed.

(e) Bilingual Schooling Project.-The data collected earlier were checked during a tour of the area (Raigarh). The final material is under print.

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(f) Reading Project.-A Visual Discrimination Test in Kannada was administered to 1200 children speaking eight mother tongues of standard I-V in thirty one schools in Mysore State. Scoring of the test for the purpose of analysis and preparation of visual charts is in progress,

(g) Folklore Unit.-A Bibliograahy of Indian Folklore is being compiled. The target of the Bibliography is about 6000 items. Material for about 4000 items has been collected so far.

(h) Development of Methods and Materials for Teaching and. Learning Second and Third Indian Language Project.-The following language instruction materials are being prepared at Hyderabad, Annamalainagar and Poona. These are treated as cooperative programmes of the Central Institute of Indian Languages with the Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, the Annamalai University and the Deccan College, respectively.

(i) CIIL-Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Project.-The cooperative project aims at preparing a curriculum for a 132-hour course in four levels in mother tongue teaching in the Kendriya Vidyalyas; this has been accepted and is presently being implemented by the Kendriya Vidyalayas.

(j) Language Environmental Camps for Students Learning Nonnative Languages In the States of Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, etc.-Six hundred and ninety five students from five states attended Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Assamese and Bengali camps for learning the language and the culture represented by it in its home environment. The Telugu camp where 600, students were to participate bad to be postponed because of disturbances in Andhra Pradesh.

(k) Language Laboratory.-The Language Laboratory of the Institute was inaugurated in, April 1972. Recording classroom use of both Audio Active Comparative (AAC) and FM Laboratories for training of students at the SLC was started. A highspeed cassette duplicator (CTD 4M), an Audio-Visual set up

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with a slide projector which can work synchroneously with the tape recorder have also been installed. A Nu copier an an automatic scan- ning machine have been added to the reprography Unit. The maintenance laboratory has been equipped with testing instruments, tools, etc. Recently a two-week intensive laboratory course for IAS Probationers, seconded to Mysore State, was given by the Institute.

(l) Southern Regional Language Centre, Mysore.-The Second Annual Convocatin of the Centre was held on April 28, 1972. Prof. D. Javare Gowda, Vice-Chancler of Mysore UniScript lessons in Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam and Kannada and Telugu Reader for Level I were prepared. A detailed curriculum guide and a first primer for teaching. Telugu as auxiliary, language in Haryana is under preparation. Revision of Intermediate, Course in Telugu and the preparation of comprehension and reading lessons are being finalized.

(m) Northern Regional Language Centre, Patiala.-The Annual Convocation was held on April 26, 1972. Sardar Kirpal Singh Narang, Vice-Chancellor of Panjabi University, Patiala distributed the Diplomas to the successful candidates.

An intensive course in Urdu is in progress. An intensive course of Kashmiri is being revised and transcribed in Devanagiri script.

(n) Eastern Regional Language Centre, Bhubaneswar.-The Annual Convocation of this Centre held in April was presided over by Shri N. Kanungo, Ex-Governor of Bihar. The centre has prepared Hindi-Assamese common Vocabulary and OriyaHindi Common Vocabulary.

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(o) Western Regional Language Centre, Poona.-Advanced Course in Marathi, revision of grammar and lesson planning have been completed. Basic Course with grammatical notes and exercises in Marathi is being finalized. Analytical list of Marathi nouns is being finalized . Advanced course in Gujarati and Sindhi have been completed. Revision of lesson planning in Gujarati is being finalized. Intermediate course in Sindhi has been revised.