SCHOOL EDUCATION AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

SCHOOL EDUCATION

The main programmes in the field of School Education include ;

(i) Universal, free and compulsory elementary education;

(ii) Vocationalisation of higher secondary education;

(iii) Improvement of quality;

(iv) Intensification of the programme in educational technology in the context of INSAT:

(v) Introduction of Population Education Programme; and

(vi) Programmes carried out through National Council of Educational Research and Training.

Other programmes concern the provision of schooling facilities to children of transferable Central Government employees and of Tibetan refugees in India; women's education; recognition of school teachers, through National Awards, welfare of teachers in indigent circumstances; provision of extra curricular activities to children through Bal Bhavan Kendras; educational concessions to children of defence personnel; and implementation of cultural exchange programmes in the field of school education.

Universalisation of Elementary Education

One of the main objectives of educational development of the Sixth Plan (1980-85) is "to ensure essential minimum education to all children up to the age of 14 years within the next ten years". This is with a view to realising the Constitutional goal of universal elementary education as in Article 45. Accordingly, elementary education was accorded a very high priority in the Sixth Plan with a total Plan outlay of Rs. 905 crore. (Rs. 851 crore in the State sector and Rs. 54 crore in the Central Sector) or 36 per cent of the total outlay of Rs. 2524 crore for education. Besides, elementary education as a whole constituted an essential component of the Minimum Needs Programme (MNP) of the Plan.

The major development in elementary education during the year has been its inclusion in the new 20- Point Programme of the Government as point No. 16. The target-year for realising the Constitutional goal wider the new 20-Point Programme is also 1989-90, i.e. the end of the next Plan period. On the basis of 1981 census estimations, for universalisation, the total enrolment in 1989-90 would be 16.30 crore. According to available reports, the total enrolment in classes I-VIII by the end of 1982-83 has touched the figure of 10.12 crore.

In the context of the 20-Point Programme, quite a few significant steps have, been taken to gear up the programme of universalisation in the country. Firstly, regional conferences of State Education Secretaries to take stock of the present position, to identify problems and to decide on the steps needed for fulfilling targets were planned. Three such conferences were, held viz. North-eastern Regional Conference at Gauhati on February 5-6, 1982; Northern Regional Conference at Chandigarh on February 11, 1982; and Central Regional Conference on May 3. 1982.

Secondly, two national conferences of Education Secretaries were hold during the period. To consider steps needed for the operationalisation of primary curricular reform projects with UNICEF assistance, a conference was held on February 17, 1982 at New Delhi. The second such conference was held on January 5-6, 1983, in which, among other items, elementary education was considered in great depth. Thirdly, the second meeting of the National Committee on Elementary Education

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was convened at New Delhi on May 12, 1982 to consider the detailed measures needed in the nine educationally backward States to accelerate die implementation of elementary education programme. Fourthly, the State Task Force on Elementary Education in each of the nine educationally backward States met, as was recommended by the National Committee on, Elementary Education, on May 12, 1982, to consider the specific problems in the State Task Force. Four States, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Orissa met once; four other States, namely Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh met twice; and, West Bengal met thrice during the year. Fifthly, to help monitoring and resolution of specific difficulties in the implementation (if the 20-Point Programme (Elementary Education and Adult Education) high-level officers of the Ministry were designated as Area Officers who undertook extensive tours, during the period. Lastly, a National Campaign on. Universalisation of Elementary Education was mounted in the country during the period between the Teacher's Day (September 5, 1982) and the Children's Day (November 4, 1982) for intensive efforts for increasing enrolment and retention at the elementary stage. The campaign, designed to create a climate for nationwide involvement was concentrated on actions related to increase enrolment, monitor attendance, fill up vacancies of teachers, recruit women teachers on a large scale, popularise non-formal education and increase enrolment in the NFE centres and ensure intensive implementation of the primary curricular reform projects with UNICEF assistance.

Free Education

According to the Constitutional directive in Article 45. education in all schools-Government, local- bodies and aided-at the primary stage (classes I-V) and at the middle, stage (classes VI-VIII) is free in all States and Union Territories except for boys at the middle stage in Uttar Pradesh.

Compulsory Education Acts

Legislation for compulsory education, as per Constitutional directive, exists in 16 States and three Union Territories, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa. Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh and Delhi. In Himachal Pradesh, the Act covers the entire elementary stage (classes I-VIII), while in the remaining States/Union Territories it covers only the primary stage (classes I-V).

Enrolment-Targets and Achievement

In the base-year of the Sixth Plan, i.e., 1979-80, enrolment the primary stage stood at 71.0.02 lakh or 83.72 per cent of 6-11 age-group population and 194.01 lakh at the middle stage or 40.16 per cent of 11-14 age- group population. The targets of additional enrolment during the Sixth Plan are 180 lakhs of 6-14 age-group population-117 lakh at the primary stage and 63 lakh at the middle stage. If achieved, enrolment at the end of 1984-85 would rise to 95 per cent Fiat 50 Per cent respectively at the primary and middle stages, based on the age-group population projections according to 1971 census figures. Available reports indicate a steady and sure progress towards achieving the enrolment targets under the Sixth Plan, as the following table would show:-

        
                                                 
(Figures in Lakhs) (Figures within brackets indicate enrolment ratios) 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1984-85 (Actuals) (Achieve- (Achieve- (likely (Target) ments) ments) achieve- ments)
Age-Group 6-11 Enrolment:Classes I-V 710.02727.16 753.25715.93 836.77 Enrolment as percentage of age- group population (83.72)(95.23) (87.76)(89.87) (95.73) Age-Group 11-14 Enrolment : Classes VI-VII 194.01204.31 218.13235.81 272.37 Enrolment as percentage of age- group population (40.16)(41.72) (43.96)(46.90) (53.23) Age-Group 6-14 Enrolment : Classes I-VIII 904.03931.47 971.381011.74 1109.14 Enrolment as percentage of age- group population (67.91)(69.36) (71.71)(74.05) (80.04)

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As per present indications, additional enrolment target of 180 lakhs of children at the elementary stage is likely to be exceeded by 25 lakh children of 6-14 age-group by the end of current Plan period. What is more, the enrolment ratios in primary, middle, and elementary stages will exceed what were originally targeted for under the Sixth Plan.

Non-formal Coverage

In addition to the enrolment position through the formal system indicated above, it is estimated that, for the country as a whole, coverage under the non-formal system is likely to be about 60 lakhs by the end of the current Plan period. Out of this the nine educationally backward states would account for a 53 lakh coverage. If achieved, the total additional coverage at the elementary stage is likely to be of the order of 265 lakhs.

The enrolment targets-both in figures and percentages- indicated earlier are based on 1971 census population projections. To achieve the same percentage of enrolment, i.e., 95 percent at the primary stage and 50 per cent at the middle stage, according to 1981 census estimations, the minimum enrolment should be 264 lakhs. The position given earlier would indicate that the percentage targets of enrolment, even according to 1981 census population projections, are within the realm of achievement.

Enrolment and Retention Strategy

The elementary age-group out-of-school children, more particularly primary age-group, belong to weaker sections including Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Such children are concentrated in the backward states and backward areas/pockets of each state. Further, about 70 per cent of the out-of-school children are girls including Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe girls. The programme of universalisation is, therefore, target-group-oriented with concentrated efforts in the backward states and backward areas/pockets in a state. In this backdrop, the following steps have been taken as the basic strategy :-

(i) In the country as a whole, nine states have been identified as educationally backward. They are : Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

(ii) Sixteen states and two Union Territories have identified the backward areas/pockets for concentrated attention. 19 states, and three Union Territories have 6-14 age-group Scheduled Castes children of more than 5,000 population. Out of these, 19 states and seven Union Territories have quantified the sizes of non-enrolled Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes children and, fixed year-wise targets for enrolment. Effort generally, is to achieve same percentage enrolment as for all children. Inputs from outlays for elementary education both under the Central and State Sector into the Tribal Sub-Plan and Special Component Plan for Scheduled Castes have been quantified.

(iii) Special efforts are being made by the states/Union Territories for accelerated coverage of girls including Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe girls.

(iv) Effort is also being made by the states to increase the coverage under the incentive programmes like provision of free textbooks and stationery, free supply of uniforms parti- cularly for. girls, attendance scholarships particularly for girls and midday meals programme for the benefit of children of the weaker sections.

Comprehensive measures for reducing drop-out rates have been suggested to states. These include ungraded school system including 'No detention' up to class VIII, conversion of single-teacher primary schools into two-teacher schools, provision of schooling facilities in all habitations with viable population, setting up of early childhood (pre- school) education centres in rural areas as adjuncts of primary schools, promotion of girl's education, curricular reform projects, improving physical

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facilities, improving teacher competence, community participation and, above all, large non-formal part-time education programmes for children who cannot join and attend formal schools due to socio- economic reasons.

Non-formal Part-time Education for Elementary Age-group children

All the states and five Union Territories are having non-formal Children education programmes for out-of-school children including non-starters and drop-outs. Non-formal education is being developed as a massive alternate supportive system to formal schooling. The thrust and extent of coverage is in the nine educationally backward states, Special central assistance is being given to these states under a centrally sponsored scheme of non-formal education for elementary age-group children. Started in the last quarter of 1979-80, the cost of the scheme is being equally shared by the Central and State Governments. During the year, a total grant of Rs. 4.62 crore was given to, these states under the scheme. The total assistance received by the states since 1980-81 is of the order of Rs. 8.82 crores out of the Sixth Plan outlay of Rs. 25 crore. In addition to this, an amount of Rs. 2 crore was received by the states for this programme in the last quarter of 1979-80.

Voluntary educational organisations in the nine educationally backward states running non-formal education centres on the State Government pattern and "academic institutions", Government or private, in any State/Union Territory taking up innovative and experimental non-formal project are given central assistance on the recommendation of the State Governments. So far, 24 voluntary organisations and one, academic institution have been sanctioned grants totalling Rs. 10.62 lakh, out of which the grant given during the year amounted to Rs. 9.26 lakh.

Non-formal programme has gained a good momentum, particularly in the nine educationally backward states. During 1982-83, the total non- formal coverage in the entire country has been of the order of 23.58 lakh through a total number of more than one lakh non-formal centres. The nine educationally backward states had during the year a total coverage of 21 lakh through 91,000 centres. Besides, the number of non-formal centres being run by voluntary organisations with central grant is 905 with an estimated coverage of 22,600.

To operationalise the non-formal programme in the nine educationally backward states two significant measures were taken during the year. Firstly, the norms and pattern of central assistance were revised in the light of experience gained during the three years of its operation. Under the original pattern, administrative and academic inputs according to the approved norms were given on a 100 per cent basis, and the cost of running centres was shared between the Centre and the State in the ratio of 3:5, in order to maintain equal sharing basis. Under the revised pattern, the entire estimated cost according to the approved norms will be shared equally by the Centre and the State. The norms have been made simpler and more rational, increasing them in sonic respects like contingencies and teaching materials and allowing supervisory cost under the revised norms. Secondly, a conference of officers-in-charge of nonformal education in the nine educationally backward States was held at the NCERT, New Delhi on August 5-7, 1982 to review the progress, consider bottlenecks and prepare action plans.

Central Paper Assistance for Non- formal Education

To help the production of teaching-learning materials, guide-books. etc., for the massive non- formal education programme in a majority of the States/Union Territories, the Ministry has been giving commodity assistance in the form of paper. Sweden, under an Indo-Swedish agreement signed on January 28, 1980 for a five-year period 1979-84, is giving cash assistance for India's non-formal education programme to the, tune of 75 million, Swedish Kronor or Rs. 14 crore. So far, a total quantity of 7200 metric tonnes of paper (3200 mts. for 1979-81 and 4,000 mts. for 1981-82) have been procured and supplied to the states. The State Trading Corporation of India has been given the responsibility of procuring three varieties of paper through global enquiries including India. During the year, action for procuring another 5450 mts. of paper as the requirement for 1982-83 was taken.

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Central Grant for Early Childhood Education Centres

Early Childhood Education (pre-school) (ECE) in rural and backward areas specially for first- generation learning families was suggested under the Sixth Plan as a distinct strategy for reducing drop-out rate and improving retention. ECE centres are accordingly being set up as adjuncts or primary and middle schools. The drop-out rate in the case of children of the weaker sections is highest in the first two classes of the primary stage. ECE for such children is designed towards improving their communication (language) and cognitive (social, emotional, intellectual and personality development) skills as a sure preparation for entry into primary schooling. Such centres as adjuncts of schools, will also enable their caretakers, usually girls, join and attend schools leaving their siblings in the care of the centres. Both these' objectives would contribute greatly towards reduction in dropout rates.

A scheme for giving central assistance to voluntary organisations for running such ECE centres in rural and backward areas was framed with a total Sixth Plan outlay of Rs. 1 crore and applications invited. Applications from various organisations have been received. Release of sanctions was held up because of a proposal to revise some norms. Final decisions have now been taken and the pending applications are likely to be considered soon.

Curricular Reform Projects with UNICEF Assistance

The primary education curriculum is mostly knowledge-oriented and, therefore, not interesting and relevant to the needs and life-situations of children in diverse areas of the country. This constitutes another potent reason for high drop-out rates. To make primary. curricula decentralised and relevant to local situations and life-needs of children, five projects have been undertaken with UNICEF assistance. These are: (1) Nutrition/Health Education and Environmental Sanitation (NHEES) (formal), (2) Primary Education Curriculum Renewal (PECR) (formal). (3) Developmental Activities in Community Education and Participation (DACEP) (non- formal), (4) Comprehensive Access to Primary Education (CAPE) (nonformal) and (5) Early Childhood Education (ECE) (non-formal). Curricular reform is mainly academic work. The Central level implementing agency is its counterpart organisation, SCERT/SIE. All the projects are in their experimental phase of implementation and one, in some states. is in the wider infusion phase during the current MPO (Master Plan of Operations) period, 1981-83, of UNICEF assistance. Significant progress has been made during the year. A major event during the year has been the Conference of Education Secretaries at New Delhi on February 17, 1982 for considering and deciding the steps needed for the operationalisation of primary curricular reform projects with UNICEF assistance.

Nutritional Health Education and Environmental Sanitation

Strated in 1975-76 with five regional centres the NHEES project under the current MPO period was proposed to be taken up in 14 additional States/Union Territories covering about 1400 primary schools for experimentation, Under this project, curriculum package bearing on nutrition and health education and environmental sanitation school. The project also after survey of the area around an experimental school. The project also involves orientation/training of teacher-educators and supervisors. The five regional centres together implemented it in 2295 primary schools covering 2.80 lakh children. During the current MPO period, the additional experimental schools in the new states were to be 1400, primary schools. Out of 14 additional States/Union Territories, agreements for implementing the project were executed by 12 States/Union Territories.

Primary Education Curriculum Renewal

Initiated in 1975-76, the pilot phase implementation of PECR project covered 13 states and two Union Territories till 1980 involving 450 experimental primary schools and 45 teacher training institutions. Presently, it is being implemented by all States/Union Territories except one Union Territory, involving 180 TTIs, 2465 primary schools, 11000 teachers and four lakhpupils. Designed to produce decentralised and relevant curricula for as many diversities as exist in a State/Union Territory, curricula and teaching materials prepared under the project are tried out in the experimental primary schools, refined on the basis of try-out and feedback and taken up for wider infusion in the entire State/Union Territory. The project work also involves socio-economic and educational survey of the area, training of key, and project personnel of various levels, development of

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curriculum plans and books and guides. After successful experimentation, the question of wider infusion has been taken up in a few States/Union Territories like Maharashtra, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Mizoram.

Developmental Activities in Commu- nity Education and Participation

The DACEP project was also initiated in 1975- 76 along with the PECR project in the same number of States and Union Territories. Presently, the project is under implementation in all the States/Union Territories except one Union Territory, as in the case of PECR project. Under the pilot phase 1975-1980, only two centres for participating State/Union Territory were set up. During the MPO period it was proposed to set up 102 community education centres out of which 98 have already been established. Curricular materials for non-formal education of the age-groups 3-4, 6-14 and 15 and above are being developed to meet the educational needs of the total community in the project area. The enrolment presently covers 4840 out of which 1388 are in the age-group 3-6, 1494 in the age-group 6-14 and 1958 in the age-group above 15.

Early Childhood Education

The forerunner of ECE project is the Children's Media Laboratory (CML), a central-level activity started in 1977 in NCERT. Under the present MPO period, ECE project has two components, namely, continuation of activities under the CML and taking up the project in its experimental phase 11 States/Union Territories. Under, the first component, play materials, picture books, graphics and radio and audio-visual materials for pre-school age-group children are developed. Under the second component, efforts are being made to develop new capacity for the training of pre-school teachers, extension of research and developing activities and development of model pre-school centres.

While the CML activities have been continued during the present MPO period, the project was offered to 11 States/Union Territories for participation. Out of these, seven states have executed agreements, and agreements were awaited from four including one which has decided to participate. The project is being implemented in one teachers training institute and 65 ECE centres in each of these states. Five one-month training programmes for teacher-educators were conducted involving 136 teacher-educators in total. Besides, three orientation programmes for State-level resource persons oil children's media were conducted.

Comprehensive Access to Primary Education

The project CAPE, taken up for implementation in 29 States/Union Territories, is aimed at preparing relevance based learning materials (episodes) for use in the network of non-formal learning centres around a TTI. Decentralised curricula according to the local situations and life-needs of out-of-school children are developed through the introduction of training-cum-production mode as a compulsory-part of the training programmes in the TTI's like practice teaching. The project is being carried out in three phases. The first phase covers activities relating to the development and production of learning episodes in sufficient quantity and variety. Tile second phase includes activities an the establishment/adoption and running of non-formal learning centres. The third involves activities leading to the establishment of evaluation centres and accreditation services. The progress has not been uniform in all the States/Union Territories, but substantial work has been done. A series of orientation/training courses and workshops for the team members of the State-level implementing agencies, principals of training institutions, teacher-educators and education officers have been conducted. 15 States and four Union Territories have introduced the training-cum-production mode in their TTI's and tryout of learning episodes. So far, about 10,000 draft learning episodes have been developed by the teacher-educators and teacher- trainees. Out of these, 2800 have been screened and selected for further processing and 400 modules processed for publication. 50 learning episodes have, already been published in four States, namely, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Besides, 28 sample learning episodes have been published by the CAPE Group, NCERT. While fully developed in all the States/Union Territories, it is expected, the content and methodology of non-formal education curricula will undergo a substantial change.

Improvement of Physical Facilities

Elementary education system in the country is severely handicapped owing to grossly inadequate physical facilities involving school buildings, minimum furniture including mats for children and blackboards. The available resources are too inadequate to wipe out the deficiencies. While the states have been making some efforts within the limitation of resources, for the construction of durable school structures and providing mats, furniture and blackboards, the Government of India have been exploring the possibility of getting external assistance for primary school buildings. Negotiations during the year were carried on particularly with two countries, namely the U.K. and Denmark, for a limited project in one state each, Good progress has been achieved in getting assistance from the U.K. for the purpose. An appraisal Mission visited India in this connection in July-August, 1982.

Scheme of integrated Education for Disabled Children

The Scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children provides education for handicapped children in ordinary schools started in 1974 by the Department of Social Welfare. The scheme has been recast in 1981-82 with liberalised and enhanced benefits to the, teachers as well as the students. In the revised Scheme, 100 per cent assistance is available to the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations as against 50 per cent available earlier. For effective implementation, the scheme was transferred to the Ministry of Education and Culture in October, 1982 with the budgetary control remaining with the Ministry of Social Welfare.

In addition to the grants to the State Governments and Union Territories it is proposed to give grants to institutions of higher education to start courses in special education in certain selected institutions for providing a well trained cadre of teachers with special training in teaching disabled children and for having a steady flow of such trained teachers so as to meet the future expansion programme.

The scheme was circulated to all State/Union Territories. 14 States and the Union Territory of Delhi have started integration of disabled children's education in normal schools; five states are, formulating their proposals.

The NCERT has set up a special cell to provide academic guidance. The Regional Colleges of Education are preparing to establish training facilities for teachers to look after disabled children in. normal schools.

Value Orientation in Education

In the context of growing concern for value orientation of education, the Ministry appointed two Working Groups-one, to review the teacher training programmes, particularly, with a view to inculcating moral and social values in the students, and the other to consider setting up of some 'model schools' which will impart moral education as part of general education on a totally restructured basis. The reports of the two Working Groups have since been received and are being examined. The Ministry intends to tackle the value orientation in education on three fronts :-

(i) Preparation of new instructional materials;

(ii) Special preparation of teachers for introducing Value-orientation in education; and

(iii) Setting up of special institutions to give a practical shape to this effort.

Schemes for achieving these objectives are being finalised in consultation with the Planning Commission.

The NCERT has also initiated a number of programmes in this direction Some basic issues concerned with the programme of moral education were discussed in a high-level seminar on moral education organised by NCERT at Simla in May, 1981. They have also been working on model curriculum in Moral Education. A national workshop was organised at Bangalore in November, 1981, for the development of guidelines for curriculum in moral education. A guide for the development of curriculum in moral education at different school stages has already been prepared. The work of developing stage wise syllabi in moral education, has been initiated. Authors for writing supplementary books in moral education for secondary classes have been commissioned.

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10+2 Pattern of School Education

The new system of school education has so far been adopted by 16 States and 8 Union Territories and also by the schools affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education. The State of Meghalaya and the Union Territory of Mizoram have pre-university stage of 2 years after class X. Though they have 12 years of schooling structure, they have yet to revise their curriculum in accordance with the new pattern of education. The states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan, are still continuing a 11-year, school system though they have agreed in principle to adopt the new pattern.

Vocationalisation of Higher Secondary Education

Six States and 5 Union Territories viz. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat. Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Delhi, Goa, Daman,and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Pondicherry, have introduced vocational courses at the plus 2 stage of the 10+2 system of school education. The Government of Jammu and Kashmir proposes to conduct a vocational survey to identify the vocational subjects necessary steps for the introduction of vocational courses from the academic to be introduced at the plus 2 stage. The Government of Orissa is taking session 1984-85.

As vocationalisation of education constitutes a major segment of school education, all the States have been requested to earmark adequate funds in their Annual Plans.

The NCERT is engaged in providing technical support to the action programmes of the State Governments to introduce vocationalisation at + 2 stage by way of development of curricula and materials, teacher orientation, developing model surveys on the basis of the programme in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra West Bengal and Delhi to help them identify difficulties faced by the Institutions and to take necessary follow-up action.

Educational Technology Programme

The Educational Technology Programme, launched in 1972-73 as a centrally-sponsored scheme, is continuing in the Sixth Plan. The objective is to bring about a qualitative improvement and widen access to education through an integrated use of all instructional technology, including radio and television. The scheme is implemented through educational technology cells in the states which are established, equipped and maintained with central assistance for a period of five years after which they become the responsi- bility of the State Governments. Educational technology cells have been set up in 21 states. For 1982-83 nine states are eligible for Central assistance under this programme. At the Central level the programme is implemented through the Centre for Educational Technology in NCERT.

ET CELLS

The Educational Technology Cells have increasingly involved themselves in planning educational broadcasts. In several states committees have been set up to finalise the schedule for the educational programmes, as also their content. Script-writers training programmes, both for radio and television have also been organised. Teacher training programmes continue to be organised through radio and support material in several States.

In Meghalaya the ET Cell has undertaken a programme of training of teachers through radio in subjects like English, Science, Geography and Mathematics. About 100 schools have been given radio sets to enable the teachers to listen to the radio broadcasts. A pilot project has also been started for the promotion of primary education. The "Teaching English Learn English Programme" continues to be implemented in Gujarat. With the introduction of English in Class V, the ET Cell has undertaken the preparation of material for the use of teachers of Class V. The ET Cell in Maharashtra continues to collaborate with Doordarshan, Bombay, in the preparation and transmission of television programmes for classes V & V] in English, for class VIII in Science and. also programmes for teachers. Television sets are also being supplied to the schools. and other educational institutions. So far, about 900 TV sets have been supplied. In Nagaland the ET Cell has taken the responsibility of purchasing and distributing radio sets to schools to ensure the utilisation of the educational broadcasts. An

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in-service teacher training course was organised for middle school teachers in Science through radio-cum-enrichment materials. This has helped the teachers who had no science background to teach science which has been made a compulsory subject in schools. The ET Cell in Haryana is working in close collaboration with AIR in planning the school educational broadcasts. The Topics for radio programmes have been selected. A large number of workshops and contact programmes have been organised for the teachers to familiarise them with educational technology and to develop low cost teaching aids.

In order to carry further these achievements, and to consolidate the impact of the programme; it has been decided to strengthen ET Cells in all the states and to set up ET Cells in the Union Territories. A revised Educational Technology Scheme has been formulated under which limited production facilities are proposed to be given to ET Cells along With the necessary staff. This revised scheme has been circulated to the states- for sending proposals for consideration. Central assistance under this scheme will be available for a period of five years. All States (except the 6 INSAT States) and Union Territories will be eligible for central assistance under the revised Scheme.

Centre for Educational Technology

The Centre for Educational Technology continued to help the state ET Cells in organising various training programmes, particularly for script writers, and also in implementing various other programmes.

The main focus of CET activities has been the production of programmes and the organisation of training courses for user-teachers/custodians in the context of INSAT. Key personnel from Andhra Pradesh and Orissa were oriented in the effective utilisation of the television service. These key personnel in turn trained the user- teachers/custodians in their respective states. The CET will produce about 50 prototype programmes for primary schools of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. A large number of programmes have already been produced and programme capsules prepared consisting of programmes produced by CET, Doordarshan and Space Application Centre. The programme capsules are sent to the Doordarshan Kendras in Hyderabad and Cuttack for transmission. Teacher guidance notes for the television programmes are also being prepared and sent to SCERTs concerned for translation and distribution to the TV villages.

INSAT

In pursuance of the decision to take over the responsibility for the production of educational television programmes it is proposed to set up pro- duction centres in the states in a phased manner. To begin with, the 6 INSAT states are to be covered, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. In addition, a new Central Institute of Educational Technology is being developed under NCERT. The non-INSAT states and Union Territories are being prepared to take over the production responsibility through the revised ET Scheme.

UNDP assistance amounting to $ 2 million is available for implementation of this project. This amount is proposed to be utilised for setting up of the Central Institute of Educational Technology. Bilateral assistance from other countries is being explored for the establishment of Production Centres in the INSAT states as part of State Institute of Educational Technology.

It would be relevant to-state that notwithstanding the failure of INSATIA it is proposed to go ahead with the implementation of the INSAT Programme because of the basic decision to take over the responsibility for the production of educational television programmes. Irrespective of the transmission mode which is the responsibility of Doordarshan, educational programmes will have to be produced. Though INSAT-1A is no longer in operation, INSAT-IB will become available by the middle of 1983. Besides, terrestrial transmission facilities and micro-wave links are also available. A number of low power transmitters have been set up by Doordarshan in the context of ASIAD. Television facilities are also proposed to be expanded by Doordarshan as part of their normal activities. Thus a large amount of transmission facilities are available for the educational programmes that will be produced by CIET and the State Production Centres.

Utilisation of Radio broadcasts for education

Planning for the systematic utilisation of radio broadcasts for education has also started. A Study Group on Radio Utilisation for Education has been set up to consider the matter in detail. The Study Group has set up four Sub-Groups to examine specific aspects and to come up with recom- mendations. The Sub-Groups are on:-

(i) Programme Utilisation and evaluation

(ii) Policy, Planning and Coordination

(iii) Hardware

(iv) Staff and training.

As was done for TV, here again a detailed project for educational radio broadcasts will be formulated on the basis of the report that this Study Group will submit.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) functions as an academic adviser to the Ministry in implementing its policies and major programmes in the field of education particularly school education. For realization of its objectives, the Council undertook a variety of research, development, training and extension programmes in school education. It collaborated with State Departments of Education and state-level institutions for the implementation of innovative projects which are expected to provide experiences useful for educational development. Under the auspices of its Educational Research and Innovations Committees it supported research in identified areas of priority. It published, textbooks, supplementary readers, research monographs and journals. It has established linkages with the states, the UNESCO and other international organisations for exchange of expertise and information.

NCERT- maintains four Regional Colleges of Education at Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar and Mysore where among others, four-year integrated courses leading to the B.A./B.Sc.Ed. degree and two years M.Sc.Ed. degree in Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Life Sciences are being provided for prospective teachers.

Sixteen Field Units at Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Gauhati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Madras, Patna, Pune, Shillong, Srinagar and Trivandrum maintained close liaison with State departments of education and such state level institutions as State Councils of Educational Research and Training and State Institutes of Education. This helped the Council to identify the requirements of the states and develop materials in, relation to their specific programmes.

The highlights of the programmes and activities undertaken by the Council are as follows :-

Universalisation of Elementary Education

The Council continued to implement with the collaboration of the states and with the assistance of UNICEF various innovative projects in curriculum renewal, comprehensive access to primary education, community education, nutrition/health education and environmental sanitation and early childhood education which are expected to help in the early realisation of the goal of universal elementary education. Under these projects syllabi and instructional materials have been prepared for the formal school in relation to the diverse socioeconomic conditions of specific communities. Learning materials, dealing with problems faced in specific communities have also become available for use in learning centres for out-of-school children. Prospective teachers of teacher training insti- tutions have been trained in the development of learning episodes.

With a view to determining the factors which prevent the enrolment of girls in elementary schools, who constitute about seventy per cent of the non-enrolled children of the age group 6-14, a survey has been initiated in eight educationally backward states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.

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Tools for monitoring and evaluation of universalisation of elementary education programme were developed and a pilot try out conducted in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. These tools are now proposed to be experimentally tried out in Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Orissa. They cover both the formal and the non-formal systems of education.

Education for the Disadvantaged Sections of the Society

The Council continued to organise activities which help in promoting education among the disadvantaged, particularly the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Orientation courses and training courses were organised for key personnel, teacher-educators and district education officers working in non-formal sector of tribal areas. Meetings were held to develop curriculum for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes and to prepare instructional materials for Santal children. Curriculum of primary level in Andhra Pradesh was analysed and a primer for Saora children of Class II prepared.

Early Childhood Education

The early childhood education programmes provide for the training of personnel, development of materials and research with a view to developing indigenous approaches to pre-school education: Training programmes in early childhood education were organised for pre-primary teacher-educators of Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. Orientation programmes were organised for state level resource persons from Bihar, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. These, covered different aspects of children's media. Other activities during the year included the development of play materials, children's literature, prototypes of games and a book of reading, the determination of the procedure for monitoring of radio/television programmes and organisation of toy competitions, etc,

Socially Useful Productive Work and Vocationalisation

In the implementation of the programmes of Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) and Vocationalisation of Education the Council assists the states in a variety of ways like orientation/training of key persons, assistance for the development of courses and textual materials, evaluation of programme implementation etc.

During the year orientation of key persons was organised for the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Lakshadweep, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Similarly orientation programmes on vocationalisation of education were organised for the principals and key-personnel of the state of Gujarat, Delhi, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Short-term teacher Training Programmes in vocational subjects were also organised in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Goa. These programmes covered Technology, Commerce. Agriculture and para-medical fields.

National Integration

In pursuance of the recommendations of the National Integration Council and the Minorities Commission, the programme of evaluation of textbooks from the stand-point of national integration was taken up. The programme has initially been confined to the scrutiny of school textbooks in the subjects of History and Languages. A decentralised approach is being followed. The evaluation is done by the agencies designated for the purpose by states and union territories, on the basis of the guidelines and tools prepared by NCERT which is also coordinating the programme.

A joint meeting of the Heads of State Agencies responsible for the programme and the members of the steering committee was held at Amritsar during September 3-4, 1982. The meeting reviewed the progress of the work done in various states and made recommendations to serve as guidelines for future work.

A national conference on school textbooks held at Gandinagar, Ahmedabad during December 7-9, 1982 urged that more positive effort to develop textual materials which promoted national integration has to be made.

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The Council also organised twelve national integration camps for school children and teachers. More than one thousand students and teachers from different states participated in these camps, thus getting the opportunity to know the diversities of culture and life styles of the country. Supplementary reading materials prepared in relation to various aspects or national integration were distributed among campers.

In pursuance of the directive of the Prime Minister to develop community singing as a mass movement, NCERT initiated. a number of activities. Among others these included selection of songs of different regional languages with national integration being the predominant theme in them, preparation of cassettes of the songs and organisation of camps in collaboration with AR India Radio for teachers for training them in community singing. Casey of the songs have already been made available to the states and it is hoped that they will, in their turn, duplicate them and distribute them to their schools. The states are also expected to organise training* programmes for teachers in community singing.

Value Orientation

Following the seminar on moral education organised in Simla in May, 1980, a draft curriculum in moral education for primary school children is being developed. Two authors have also been commissioned to write books on moral education for the use of children enrolled in the primary schools.

Population Education

The national population education programme entered its third year. Besides doing original work, the Council assisted the states/Union Terri- tories which are implementing this programme in the preparation of textual materials on population education and its inclusion in various subjects, training of key. persons and teachers in dealing with various components of population education.

Under the, inter-country study tours an eight-member delegation from Philippines and seven- member delegation from the People's Republic of China visited India to study the various aspects of the population education project.

Teacher Education

The universities of Nagpur, Aurangabad and Bombay were assisted in revising their B.Ed. syllabus in the light of the Teacher Education Curriculum-A Framework of the National Council of Teacher Education. The fourth conference of the State Boards of Teacher Education was organised at Bhopal under the auspices of the NCTE for which NCERT provides the Secretariat. Unesco Regional Seminar on the introduction of productive work in education, was organised.

Continuing; Education Centres in states which were started in 1978-79, continued to work towards updating the professional competencies of secondary school teachers, teacher-educators of teacher training schools. Each of these centres caters to the professional needs of teachers/teacher/educators of three to four districts. While the establishment of 150 centres by the end of the Sixth Five Year Plan has been approved, nearly 90 centres are at present functioning.

National Science Exhibition

The National Science Exhibition was organised at Calcutta from November 10 to 16, 1982. The theme for this year's exhibition was "Science and Community Development". More than 420 school children and teachers participated in the exhibition. Some 160 models were exhibited. The emphasis on the exhibition was on electronics, satellites, science models, space, exploration, etc.

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Environmental Education

The programmes in this area included' orientation workshops for teaching science through environment effectively, a seminar on environment management organisation, development of a textbook on environmental studies and the development of display materials on environmental education.

National Talent Search

Every year, NCERT awards 550 scholarships including 50 for students belonging to Scheduled Castes/Tribes on the basis of an all India examina- tion. Tests are administered in all the languages recognised in the Constitution, Final Year students of classes X, XI, and XII take these tests in May every year in more than 400 centres. Awardees can pursue studies up to, Ph.D. in Sciences, Mathematics and Social Sciences or take up pro- fessional courses in areas like Engineering or Medicine. This year 84000 students appeared in the National Talent Search examination for classes X(47000), XI(9000) and XII(28000).

Examination Reform

NCERT offered assistance to the states of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Sikkim and Tamil Nadu and to Central Board of Secondary Education in using most modern techniques of evaluating students' performance. Publications on Criterion Reference Testing, Evaluation in Elementary Schools, Readings in Evaluation and on Practical Examinations were developed. Brochures on Unit Tests in History and Geography have been printed. A study on open-book Examination. was also completed.

Educational Technology

NCERT developed 50 prototype educational television programmes for primary school teachers of rural areas. These programmes are of 20 minutes duration each. Originally meant for being beamed through INSAT, the programmes are now being beamed through ground stations to selected villages in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, On an average, 600 villages in each of the states are benefited by those programmes. Scripts for films and video programmes for INSAT were developed.

A film on "Micro Teaching" was released. It depicts the process through which one teaching skill is taught at a time. This film is likely to be helpful in the training of teachers by informing them of the concept or micro-teaching.

Survey and Data Processing

The main report of the Fourth All-India Educational Survey was received from the press and distributed to state Governments and other organisations. The report provides detailed information for different states and Union Territories on existing educational facilities, enrolments and teachers for the different stages of school education for the year 1978-79. The Information on habitations where schooling facilities are not available within reasonable walking distance of children will help states to establish schools on the basis of more rational criteria. District educational plans on the basis of the fourth All India Educational Survey data have been developed.

A study supported by USAID on impact of mid- day meals programme on enrolments at the primary level was undertaken. All the thirteen states where the mid-day meals programme is in operation. are being covered in this study.

Educational Guidance

The 21st diploma course in educational and vocational guidance, was completed by 33 trainees. Seven of these trainees belonged to Scheduled Castes who were awarded a stipend of Rs. 250/- per month. "A study of the educational and vocational planning, academic achievement and selected psychological and home background variable of tribal high school students in and around Shillong (Meghalaya)" was initiated.

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Educational Journals

NCERT brought out the journals of

(i) Indian Education Review (4 Quarterly issues)

(ii) Journal of Indian Education (6 Bi- monthly issues)

(iii) Primary Teacher (4 Quarterly issues each in English and Hindi).

(iv) School Science (4 Quarterly issues); and has started.

(v) Bhartiya Adhunik Shiksha.

Publications

The Council published over 250 titles of reprints or first editions of textbooks, research monographs and workbook/supplementary readers. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Punjab and Orissa have adapted/adopted some of NCERT publications.

CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

The Board of High School, and Intermediate Education Rajputana including Ajmer, Mewar, Central India and Gwalior was established in 1.929 by a resolution of the Government of India. In 1952 the Board was given its present name "The Central Board of Secondary Education". From time to time its constitution was changed and jurisdiction extended so that the Board could play a useful role in the field of secondary education, to make its services available to various educational institutions in the country and to meet the education needs of students who have to move from State to State. It was reconstituted in July 1962. The schools of the Board are located in all parts of the country and even abroad giving the Board a place of pride in- the field of school education. The schools affiliated to CBSE are expected to provide uniform school education cutting across state borders and linguistic areas. The underlying idea is to promote national integration through inter-State mobility of students. This arrangement also helps children of transferable persons to pursue uninterrupted studies.

The Board operates under the overall supervision of the controlling authority which is vested under the Education Secretary to the Govern- ment of India, Ministry of Education and Culture. The Board functions through a number of committees. There are 7 major committees of the Board which have different functions catering to the needs of the Board.

The Central Board is not merely an examining body. It is an educational board. Its jurisdiction extends to the whole of the country. Same of the main roles and functions of the Board are. to affiliate institutions, from all over the country for the purpose of its examinations, arrange inspection of schools for granting Affiliation, conduct examinations, prescribe courses and syllabi, organise orientation programmes, undertake development and publication of textbooks when found necessary and to submit to the Government of India its views on educational mutters and policies.

In the meeting of the Governing Body of the Board held in October, 1981, the question of curriculum structure both at the secondary and senior secondary level was discussed in its entirety and it was decided that the new syllabi and courses may be introduced in a staggering manner from 1986 examinations.

Publications

The Board undertakes publications of a few textbooks and occasional reports. As regards the textbooks the role of CBSE in the area is limited and may be viewed as a pace-setter to quality books. In the year 1982 the Board prescribed a new set of Course "X" English course textbooks for Class X. The textbooks for the Course 'A' were brought out by the Board. These books were prepared in joint collaboration of the Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, Hyderabad and the NCERT, and include a variety of themes drawn from the working of Indian and foreign authors CBSE is in the process of developing its Course "A" and Course "B" books for classes IX and X under the overall guidance of the Committee of course, Hindi. At the instance of the Committee out-

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side experts in the, subject have been associated with the purpose of ensuring that the books are of quality and serve initially the needs of the groups namely those offering Hindi Course 'A' and Course 'B' at the secondary level. Secondary level science books for Physics,, Chemistry and Biology are being developed under the overall guidance of each convener. Experts from NCERT have been associated with the task. The three science books will be in one volume and serve as pace-setter to others interested in science education. The special feature of the volume will be new approach of the subject treatment and its presentation.

Reports published include (a) 'Science Project Report' (b) 'Effective School Management' and (c) 'The Third Dimension of Education (SUPW) Its scope and Outreach'

Workshops and Seminars

(a) Mathematics Work-shops

This year the Central Board of Secondary Education conducted two Mathematics Education Workshops in collaboration with the British Council. One Workshop was held in Vidya- Niketan, Birla Public School from August 30 to September 3, 1982 and the second in Tibetan Central School, Darjeeling from 7, to II September, 1982.

The British Council provided the consultancy services of two experts, namely Prof. A. C. Bajpai and Mr.-Arm Strong both from Loughborow, U.K. They were assisted by Mr. Soorre who also attended the two workshops as a resource person.

Vocational Education

A three-day seminar on Vocational Education was field in collaboration with the NCERT in August, 1982 with the objective of discussing and clarifying the various issues involved in the scheme of vocationalisation of education to provide up-to-date literature for the guidance of the schools, to get a feed-back on the implementation of the programmes from those schools 'where the vocational courses have been introduced and to share experience particularly with a view to sorting out problems of bottlenecks in the way of wider implementation and to identify and suggest corrective measures in the CBSE scheme of vocationalisation.

In 1982 the Board conducted 9 examination and awarded 67 merit scholarships for different streams/examinations.

As on September 30, 1982 the Board had 1526 schools affiliated to it.

CENTRAL TIBETAN SCHOOLS ADMINISTRATION

The Central Tibetan Schools Administration was set-up as an autonomous organisation in 1961 under the Societies Registration Act (XXI of 1860). The objective of the Administration is to run, manage and assist institutions for the education of children of Tibetan refugees in India. The work of the Administration is managed by the Governing Body.

The Administration runs residential schools at Dalhousie, Darjeeling, Mussoorie and Simla and day schools at Bylakuppe, Kollegal, Gothangaon, Kharepathar, Mirik, Ghook, Chowkur, Chandragiri, Dholanji, Miao, Gurupure, Kalimpong, Kurseong, Mainpat, Mundgod, Sonada, Tenzingaon and Tezu.

The total number of students studying in the schools run or aided by the Administration is 12,000 approximately out of Which 1800 are boarders and 10,200 day scholars. The number of boarders also includes 1442 India born Tibetan children admitted as boarders on payment of Rs. 117/- p.m. as board and lodging charges in accordance with the decision taken by the Governing Body. In residential schools, apart from board and lodging, daily necessities and medical facilities are also provided free. Mid-day-Meals. free textbooks and stationery etc., are also provided to all students including those studying in day schools. The Administration has 450 employees which includes 350 teachers. The Administration also awards 15 scholarships to Tibetan students for prosecuting higher studies every year. These scholarships are tenable for 3 years.

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These schools impart education through common media, syllabi and textbooks. Schools having Class IX and above are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education and prepare students for All India Secondary School Examination and All India Senior School Certificate Examination. The curricula courses and textbooks up to class VIII are those prepared by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. In addition to English, students are taught Hindi and Tibetan languages. The result of Tibetan schools in the Secondary School Examination held by Central Board of Secondary Education in 1982 was 80.6% and for All India Senior School Certificate Examination was 69.23%.

For promoting cooperation between parents and teachers, parent-teacher associations have been functioning in the day schools. To facilitate smooth running of schools, local advisory committees have also been set up in a number of schools. A seminar on Tibetan languages was organised in October, 1982 at the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath/Varanasi with the help of the Central Board of Secondary Education.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN

With the idea of encouraging the growth of secondary schools having a common syllabus and medium of instruction and for providing uniform educational facilities throughout the country for the children of transferable Central Government employees including Defence personnel, the scheme of Central Schools was approved by the Government of India in November, 1962. To start with 20 Regimental Schools were taken over as Central Schools' or 'Kendriya Vidyalayas' during the academic year 1963-64, giving birth to Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan.

The number of Kendriya Vidyalayas has since multiplied very fast and was 403 during 1982-83, registering an increase, of 37 from 1981-82. The total enrolment as on April 30, 1982 was 2,77,081. The total number of teaching and non-teaching staff in all Kendriya Vidyalayas was 17,878.

The Sangathan is, at present, divided into 12 regions located. at Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Bombay, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gauhati, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Madras, Patna and Roorkee. Each region is tinder the charge of an Assistant Commissioner with appropriate administrative staff. In some, of the regions, an Education Officer is also posted to assist the Assistant Commissioner in the performance of his academic duties. The Sangathan has continued making concerted efforts to improve the professional competence of all categories of teaching and supervisory staff in Kendriya Vidyalayas by organising in-service courses for them. The courses for the Education Officers, Principals. Vice-Principals, Post-Graduate teachers and trained graduate teachers were organised by the Headquarters of the Sangathan whereas those for primary teachers were organised by the Assistant Commissioner in their respective region. All these courses were organised in collaboration with CBSE, NCERT, IlTs, NIEPA and universities. Four hundred post-graduate teachers, 1100 trained graduate teachers, 1980 primary teachers, 350 principals and 140 directors, resource persons, etc. attended the various courses. Members of the teaching staff were deputed to various institutions within the country and also overseas for higher training. About 300 teachers were sponsored to workshops/seminars organised by the CBSE, NCERT, Delhi Administration, NIEPA, NIS Patiala, Laxmibai National College of Physical Education and Centre for Cultural Resources and Training. Two principals and 3 PGTs were sent abroad for higher training.

Continuous efforts are being made by the Sangathan to help the backward children to come up and bright children to achieve academic excellence. As a result of these efforts, the pass percentage in the Central Board, All India Secondary School Examination 1982, of Kendriya Vidyalayas was 90.8% as against 83.5% for all the schools affiliated to the CBSE. The corresponding figure in the All- India Senior School Certificate (Class XII Examination), 1982 were 87.2% for the KVS as against 78.6 for all the schools affiliated to the Board. In the science stream of the All India Senior School Certificate Examination, 1982 the students of Kendriya Vidyalayas occupied a number of positions in the merit list. In the humanities and commerce streams also students got good merit positions. Even in various

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competitive examinations for admission to engineering and medical conies and national defence academy, students of Kendriya Vidyalayas have done exceedingly well.

Besides academic excellence, Kendriya Vidyalayas emphasise on games, sports and other activities for an all round growth of the personalities of their students. Various games and sports events at school, regional and national levels were organised. The Sangathan also organised coaching camps for the students.

The growth and development of the scouts and guides is yet another activity on a two-year plan prepared by the Sangathan. This plan envisages registration of over 33,000 scouts and guides and an equal number of cubs and bulbuls.

Efforts have also been made to spread the importance of environmental education. Students of Kendriya Vidyalayas participated in environmental improvement programme.

As a step towards promoting international understanding and world peace, an exhibition was organised. The exhibition was visited by the heads of mission of various countries.

Yoga Education has also been introduced on an experimental basis to one year.

Bal Bhavan Society

Bal Bhavan Society is an autonomous organisation, registered in 1956, under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 and is fully financed by the Government of India. It affords opportunities to children for education through creative, recreational and physical activities that inculcate in them such values as would help them to develop a modern Indian personality with a scientific temper. Amongst its various objectives, it aims to act as National Training Resource Centre for Creative Education and to make available to the nation a prototype comprehensive children's institution through Art and Science experience and help children to grow towards national aspirations.

Bal Bhavan celebrated Silver Jubilee in 1982- 83 which highlighted its contribution to develop facilities for creative education and recreation for children between the age group of 5-16 through. its multi-media activities. In the year 1982-83 over 6,000 children were enrolled as its members. In addition over 1,000 children from different schools participated in its activities every week to school contact programmes.

During the period under report, integration camps were arranged for blind children, mentally retarded children, deaf and dumb etc. About 200 children participated in a Tribal Children's camp organised in July with the participation of tribals from Assam, Orissa, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan, West Bengal and Bihar.

During Summer, two day camps were organised for children from different groups such as artists, sportsmen, scientists and performing artists. A unique convention of young futurists with a theme "Building for better tomorrow" was organised and was attended by eminent personalities and futurologists from all over the country. In a Bal Sahitya Sabha, 80 children participated and presented pieces of prose and poetry and interacted with well-known writers, poets and editors. In the Annual National Children's Assembly organised in November-about 120 children participated. Creative art workshop, science workshop, games, fair, creative camps, a historian's function besides field trips were the main attractions of the Assembly. These assemblies and camps afforded a good opportunity to children, to interact and exchange learning experience and appreciate each other's thought, ideas and expression to help develop the sense of national integration.

Through its 15 Bat Kendras, over 15,000 children are catered in providing the educational and recreative facilities. During the year, two Bal Bhavan Kendras were added.

Two Bal Bhavan Children were included in a group of students to this year's international children's assembly in Sophia called "Banner of peace", 1982.

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Art and Science workshops were organised in different areas for the benefit of children, teacher trainers and Bal Kendras staff. Over 12,000 trainees had the benefit of such workshops during the year.

Population Education Programme

The National Population Education Programme launched on April 1, 1980 is designed to create in the younger generation, an adequate awareness of the population problems and realisation in this regard of its responsibilities towards the nation. It is now being implemented in 27 States/Union Territories. Efforts are being made to bring the remaining States/Union Territories within the ambit of this programme. All the States/Union Territories implementing the programme, have been asked to reschedule their activities under the programme so as to make them coterminus with the Sixth Five Year Plan i.e. 1980-85.

The NCERT provides technical advice for the implementation of this programme. They have conducted workshops for training of teachers and for sensitising the textbook writers. Besides conducting baseline surveys, they developed proto- type materials and helped in their try-out. They have also provided guidance to the states in the revision of textbooks. 15 states and Union Territories developed curriculum in population education. They have started developing instructional materials.

The Government of India have set up a National Steering Committee with overall authority for coordination as well as implementation of the programme. In their 4th meeting held on August 17, 1982 it was decided that the programme should be developed in the non-formal sector also.

Project Progress Review and Tripartite Progress Review meetings of representatives of the Ministry of Education, NCERT, and UNFPA officials, have been held from time to time to assess the progress of the programme. The UNFPA has been appreciative of the implementation of the programme and has, accordingly, decided to increase its share of assistance by US Dollars 7,50,000.

Under UNESCO-sponsored Inter-country Study Tour Programmes, delegations from the Philippines and the Peoples Republic of China visited India in September, 1982 to study the Population Education Programme.

Review of School Textbooks

It has been decided to undertake an immediate review of school textbooks in all states/Union Territories from the point of view of national integration. To begin with, textbooks in History and Languages are to be evaluated followed by a similar review in other subjects. The attempt is to bring out revised textbooks from the 1983-84 academic session.

In view of We enormity of work involved, the programme is being implemented on a decentralised basis. The NCERT have prepared the tools and guidelines for the State Governments/Union Territories. All the State Governments have set tip review committees for the evaluation of school textbooks, except the State Government of West Bengal. The Union Territories of Chandigarh, Pondicherry, Lakshadweep and Arunachal Pradesh are following the textbooks of their neighbouring states. The work of evaluation is at various stages of progress in the states/Union Territories.

Evaluation of NCERT textbooks in Hindi, English, Sanskrit and History has also been undertaken and the finalised reports are being implemented.

At the National level, the Government of India has set up a National 'Steering Committee for evaluation of textbooks which will, among others, consider the evaluation reports from the State Evaluation Groups/NCERT, review the progress of this programme and indicate policy guide-fines for future action.

Training Awards under the British Technical Cooperation Training Programme

Under the All India Mathematics Education Project 23 fellowships were available this year for training teachers in Advanced Mathematics at the Centre for Advancement of Mathematical Education and Technology, Loughborough, England. 10 teachers each were selected from Kerala and Uttar Pradesh and 3 from K.V.S. The teachers have already proceeded to UK for the training.

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15 Awards are, available, under the All India Science Education Project. Since the project was converted into an All India Project last year, the Chelsea Institute, where the training is given, was facing some difficulties in meeting the varied needs of the teachers from the states. In view of this it was decided that during 1982-83 only 3 awards would be utilised for sending teachers to complete the teacher guides at the Chelsea Insti- tute. NCERT have prepared the course outline for training under this project. The details are being worked out. This will enable the Chelsea Institute to organise the training according to requirements from 1983-84. The balance of 12 awards are being utilised during the current year for training in educational technology.

In order to meet the training requirements for educational technology, the British Council have provided 15 awards for the purpose. In addi- tion, there are the 12 awards transferred from the All India Science Education Project. So far 10 persons have undergone training in educational technology. Several nominators are presently under consideration of the British Council and they are likely to be finalised early next year.

National Awards to Teachers

The scheme of National Awards, introduced in 1958-59, was continued. The award consists of a silver medal, a certificate, and a cash amount of Rs. 1,500/-.

The function for the distribution of the 1981 National Awards to Teachers was held on Teacher's Day i.e. September 5, 1982 when the President gave away the Awards. 100 teachers were selected for the National Awards from all over the country. Of these 39 were secondary school teachers, 58 were primary school. teachers and 3 were teachers of Sanskrit Pathashalas.

From 1982 the number of awards have been increased from 116 to 124. The smaller states and Kendriya Vidyalaya Sanghthan which were entitled to only one award have now been allocated two awards each, one for primary and the other for secondary school teachers. So far, 96 teachers have been selected for the 1982 National Awards. Of these 55 are primary school teachers, 40 are secondary school teachers and 1 is an Arabic/Persian Teacher.

N.C.C. Junior Division Troops in Central, Public and Residential Schools

The Ministry continued to share the expenditure with the Ministry of Defence on a 40: 60 basis for this activity. An amount of Rs. 3.50 lakhs has been released to the Directorate. General, NCC, for this purpose. The Ministry of Defence have enhanced the honorarium payable to the NCC part-time officer. In view of this, the Ministry's share of expenditure has increased by Rs. 2.00 lakhs. The Budget provision for this purpose has, therefore, been increased. National Foundation for Teachers. The National Foundation for Teachers' Welfare was set up in 1962 Welfare under the Charitable Endowments Act, 1890 with the object of promoting welfare of teachers generally and providing relief to teachers and their dependents in indigent circumstances. In order to give a sound financial standing to the foundation, a decision was taken to build a Corpus of Rs. 5 crores with the intention to provide steady finance to the teachers' welfare schemes out of the interest accruing on the Corpus. The target of Rupees five crores has since been achieved and the funds of the Foundation have exceeded Rupees seven crores. The matter regarding utilisation of the Corpus money and interest accruing thereon is under consideration of a Committee set up for the purpose.

The Corpus of the Foundation is comprised of the contributions made by the Union and State Governments/Union Territories as also 20% of the collections made by. the states/Union Territories; retaining the remaining 80% for financial assistance to teachers and their dependents in indigent circumstances in their state/Union Territory. A campaign for the collection of funds is organised by the Education Ministry and the states/Union Territories on the Teachers' Day, which is celebrated on September 5 each year throughout the country. As usual collection drive was launched by the Education Ministry and the state/Union Territory Governments on September 5, 1982.

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The Foundation gives an award comprising, a certificate and cash prize of Rs. 500/- every year to three teachers for their long and meritorious service of not less than 30 years to commemorate the memory of the late Prof. D. C. Sharma, a renowned educationist and a member of the General Committee of the Foundation. For 1980, three teachers were selected for grant of this award.

Cultural Exchange Programmes in the field of School Education

The programme is being implemented by the Ministry in collaboration with the National Council of Educational Research and Training, State Governments etc.

Recently, the strategy to be adopted for including items in the various Indo-Foreign Cultural Exchange Programmes concerning school education in general and National Council of Educational Research and Training in particular was considered and the following decisions taken.

Exchange of Materials/Publications etc.

Exchanges should be on a selective basis and it should be limited to the extent facilities are available for translation. Preference should be given for exchange of audio visual materials such as films, tapes, cassettes etc. with dubbing rights. Exchange of scientific kits and models will also be preferred.

Exchange of Visits

Both outgoing and incoming visits should be on a selective basis restricted to 10-15 days and attachment to institutions should be preferred to general purpose visits covering a number of places. Exchanges should be proposed in different areas and not necessarily in the same areas i.e. the two groups exchanged need not study the same aspects.

Several visits have been exchanged during 1982. A 4-member Iraqi delegation visited India from February 2 to 15, 1982. A 5-member Vietnamese delegation visited India from February 13 to 27, 1982. A two-member Russian delegation visited India from October 27 to November 6, 1982. A 3-member Indian delegation visited USSR from, September 14, 1982 for a period of two weeks. It is also proposed to send another 5-member delegation to the USSR in different fields of school education.

Educational Concessions to Defence Personnel

The Ministry continued to operate the Scheme under which educational concessions are offered to children of defence personnel and paramilitary forces killed or permanently disabled during Indo- China hostilities and Indo-Pak hostilities in 1965 and 1971. During 1981-82, 35 students received such concessions.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Physical Education Policy and Programmes

A significant development in the Youth Services, Sports and Physical Education was the creation of the Department of Sports in September 1982. The Department of Sports is responsible for Games, Sports, Boy scouts, Girl guides, National Discipline Scheme etc. and Youth welfare activities (excluding Youth hostels), Youth festivals, Work camp etc. The work relating to physical education remains with the Department of Education in the Ministry of Education and Culture. The Secretariat of the Society for National Institutes of Physical Education and Sports, which is the Governing Body both for Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education, Gwalior and Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sports, Patiala, continues to be located in the Department of Education. The programme of Government of India for promotion of Physical Education and Sports during the year continued to be implemented within the broad framework of the guidelines laid down in the National Policy on Education as adopted by Parliament in 1968. The two-fold objective of the current programme of the Central Government is participation in the main-stream of internationally current programmes of physical education and sports simultaneously with the broad-based mass participation and promotion of country's traditional and indigenous activities in this field. While formulating programmes for promotion of physical education and sports the complementary nature of competitive sports aimed at excellence and high

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achievement on the one hand and broad-based mass physical education and sports programmes on the other have been kept in view. Taking cognizance of potentialities of Yoga as a traditional physical fitness activity, teacher training and research programmes in Yoga also continued to be encouraged.

Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education

The primary object of the College, which is one of the two National Institutes established by the Government of India in the field of Physical Education and, Sports, is to provide facilities for training of high calibre leadership in physical education for educational institutions and other organisations. During the year the College continued to discharge its primary responsibility of providing teacher training facilities at the graduate and post-graduate levels. Since 1957, when the College was set up, it has produced 2077 Physical Education teachers at the graduate and post-graduate levels including 376 women.

The year 1982-83 is significant year in the history of the College as it has been granted the status of an autonomous college with the approval of the University Grants Commission and the Ministry of Education and Culture.

During the academic session 1982-83, the total strength of students of the College was 354 including 70 women in the graduate as well as post- graduate courses.

Besides, its regular Teacher Training Programme, the College continued to provide extension services and refresher courses for the inservice personnel in physical education and sports. Further, it continued to implement on agency basis the Central Programmes like National Physical Fitness Programme, National Prize Competition for the published literature on physical education and sports on behalf of the Ministry of Education and Culture.

Grants to Physical Education Teacher Training Institutions

This scheme is, a continuing scheme from the Second Five Year Plan Period and provides for financial assistance to Physical Education Teacher Training Institutions, both Government as well as non-Government, through the State Governments, to cover 50% of the expenditure on specific projects for improvement of physical facilities in these institutions. The scheme is being implemented in consultation with the Society for the National Institutes of Physical Education and Sports (SNIPES) which is also functioning inter-alia as an advisory body at the national level in matters pertaining to physical education and yoga. With a view to making the nature and scope of the scheme more broad-based and its implementation more effective, the pattern of assistance of the scheme has been modified in consultation with the SNIPES, so as to provide more liberal financial assistance to the institutions with special emphasis oil promotion of research at the post graduate level. The revised pattern now provides for assistance for some new projects like-hostel, administrative block, research laboratory and also enhancement of ceilings of Central Government contributions therefor. It also provides for financial assistance for promotion of research programmes in physical education at individual and institutional level.

Promotion of Yoga

Taking cognizance of potentialities of yoga in promotion of physical fitness, the Central Ministry of Education and Culture has been implementing since the Second Five Year Plan the Scheme for Promotion of Yoga as a part of the Ministry's overall programme for development of physical education and sports. It provides for financial assistance to yoga institutions of an all India character for maintenance as well as developmental expenditure on promotion of basic research and for teacher training programmes in the various aspects of yoga, other than the therapeutical aspects. Financial assistance to yoga institutions for promotion of yoga therapy is extended by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

The Kaivalayadham Shreeman Madhaya Yoga Mandir Samiti, Lonavla (Pune) continued to be assisted under the scheme for its maintenance and developmental expenditure for research and teacher training activities in the field of yoga.

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The recommendations made by the Review Committee set up Some time back to assess the working of the Samiti and to make recommendations with regard to its projected developments during the subsequent years have since been implemented by the Government. These include inter-alia revision of pay scales of the staff and strengthening of research and teacher training programmes of the Samiti.

Society for the National institutes of physical Education and Sports (SNIPES)

The Society for the National Institutes of Physical Education and Sports (SNIPES), set up in 1965 as an autonomous body to look after the maintenance and administration of the two National Institutes of Physical Education and Sports namely- the Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sports, Patiala and the Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education, Gwalior-and also to initiate steps for raising the standards of games and sports through the national coaching scheme and Regional Coaching Centres continued to function during the year. The SNIPES held six meetings during the year.

On the expiry of the three year term, the SNIPES was reconstituted for a period of three years with effect from August 1, 1982 under the Chairmanship of Shri Vidyacharan Shukla, Member of Parliament.

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