The Teacher Education Policy in India has evolved over time and is based on recommendations contained in various Reports of Committees/Commissions on Education,
the important ones being the Kothari Commission (1966), the Chattopadyay Committee (1985), the National Policy on Education (NPE 1986/92), Acharya Ramamurthi
Committee (1990), Yashpal Committee (1993), and the National Curriculum Framework (NCF, 2005). The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act,
2009, which became operational from 1st April, 2010, has important implications for teacher education in the country.
Legal and Institutional Framework
Within the federal structure of the country, while broad policy and legal framework on teacher education is provided by the Central Government,
implementation of various programmes and schemes are undertaken largely by state governments. Within the broad objective of improving the learning
achievements of school children, the twin strategy is to
- prepare teachers for the school system (pre-service training).
- improve capacity of existing school teachers (in-service training).
For pre-service training, the National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE), a statutory body of the
Central Government, is responsible for planned and coordinated development of teacher education in the country. The NCTE lays down norms and standards for
various teacher education courses, minimum qualifications for teacher educators, course and content and duration and minimum qualification for entry of
student-teachers for the various courses. It also grants recognition to institutions (government, government-aided and self-financing) interested in undertaking
such courses and has in-built mechanism to regulate and monitor their standards and quality.For in-service training, the country has a large network of
government-owned teacher training institutions (TTIs), which provide in-service training to the school teachers. The spread of these TTIs is both vertical
and horizontal. At the National Level, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), along with its six Regional Institutes of Education (REIs)
prepares a host of modules for various teacher training courses and also undertakes specific programmes for training of teachers and teacher educators. Institutional
support is also provided by the National University on Education al Planning and Administration (NUEPA). Both NCERT and NUEPA are national level autonomous bodies.
At the state level, the State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERTs), prepares modules for teacher training and conducts specialised courses for
teacher educators and school teachers. The Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) and Institutes for Advanced Learning in Education (IASEs) provide in-service training
to secondary and secnior secondary school teachers and teacher educators. At the district level, in-service training is provided by the District Institutes of
Education and Training (DIETs). The Block Resource Centres (BRCs) and Cluster Resource Centres (CRCs) form the lowest rung of institutions in the vertical hierarchy
for providing in-service training to school teachers. Apart from these, in-service training is also imparted with active role of the civil society, unaided schools and
Financing of Programmes and activites
For pre-service training, the government and government-aided teacher education institutions are financially supported by the respective State Governments.
Further, under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Teacher Education, the Central Government also supports over 650 institutions, including the DIETs, CTEs and the IASEs.
For in-service training, financial support is largely provided by the Central Government under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), which is the main vehicle for implementation
of the RTE Act. Under the SSA, 20 days in-service training is provided to school teachers, 60 days refresher course for untrained teachers and 30 days orientation for
freshly trained recruits. Central assistance for in-service training is also provided to District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs), Colleges of
Teacher Education (CTEs) and Institutes of Advanced Studies In Education (IASEs) under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Teacher Education. State Governments
also financially support in-service programmes. Several NGOs, including multi-lateral organizations, support various interventions, including in-service training
Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Teacher Education
(i) ORIGINAL SCHEME
As envisaged in the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, and its Programme of Action (POA), a Centrally-Sponsored Scheme of Restructuring and Reorganization of
Teacher Education was launched in 1987 to create a sound institutional infrastructure for pre-service and in-service training of elementary & secondary school teachers and
for provision of academic resource support to elementary and secondary schools. The Scheme had, inter alia, the following component:-
Under the Scheme, recurring and non-recurring Central assistance is provided to the State Governments as resource support to the DIETs, CTEs, IASEs and SCERTs.
- Setting up of District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs).
- Strengthening of Secondary Teachers Education Institutions into Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) and Institutes of Advanced Study in Education (IASEs).
- Strengthening of State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERTs).
(ii)REVISED SCHEME UNDER XTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
The Scheme was revised under the X Plan, with the following main objectives :-
- Speedy completion of DIET/CTE/IASE/SCERT projects, which have been sanctioned but not completed up to the end of the IX Plan period.
- Making DIETs, CTEs, IASEs sanctioned (and SCERTs strengthened) upto the IX Plan period, optimally functional and operational.
- Sanction and implementation of fresh DIET/CTE/IASE/SCERT projects to the extent necessary.
- Improvement in the quality of programmes being undertaken by DIETs, etc. – especially those of pre-service and in-service training, so as
to enable them to effectively play their nodal role of improving quality of elementary and secondary education in their respective jurisdiction,
as measured in terms of levels of learner achievement.
(iii) REVISION OF THE SCHEME
The Central Government entrusted the National Council for Educational Research & Training (NCERT) to evaluate the Teacher Education Scheme.
The NCERT submitted its Report in August, 2009. The Report contains several recommendations for revising the Scheme. The Ministry is in the process of
revising the Scheme.
IMPLICATIONS ON TEACHER EDUCATION OF THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT, 2009
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 has implications on the present teacher education system and the Centrally Sponsored Scheme on
Teacher Education. The Act inter alia provides that :
- The Central Government shall develop and enforce standards for training of teachers;
- Persons possessing minimum qualifications, as prescribed by an academic authority authorise by the Central Government, shall be eligible to be employed as teachers;
- Existing teachers not possessing such prescribed qualifications would be required to acquire that qualification within a period of 5 years.
- The Government must ensure that the Pupil-Teacher Ratio specified in the Schedule is maintained in each school
- Vacancy of a teacher in a school, established, owned, controlled or substantially financed by the Government, shall not exceed 10% of the sanctioned strength.