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REFORMS IN TEACHER EDUCATION

Revision of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Teacher Education


The Department has initiated the process of revision of the Teacher Education Scheme. The revised Scheme is guided by the following factors :
  • To integrate teacher education with overall education development in the States;
  • The need for expansion of capacity of teacher education institutions, especially in some of the deficit States of East and North-Eastern Region;
  • Address the problem of large number of untrained teachers and the possibility of large number of persons being recruited (because of the Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) specified in the RTE Act) without possessing the prescribed professional qualification;
  • Expanding institutional capacity to provide in-service training for secondary school teachers in light of the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA);
  • Strengthening the decentralized structures of BRCs and CRCs to provide adequate institutional support for professional development of school teachers on a continuous basis;
  • To link elementary teacher education with the higher education system
  • To develop and put in place a mechanism to monitor the implementation of the Scheme on various physical and financial parameters with pre-defined outcomes for improving the overall quality of various activities of the teacher education institutions.
The main components of the revised scheme are as under:-
  1. Modification in Centre-State financial sharing pattern, from the existing 100% central assistance to sharing pattern in the ratio of 75:25 for all States/UTs (90:10 for NER States, including Sikkim)
  2. Continuation of support to SCERTs/SIEs
    • Strengthening and re-structuring of SCERTs,
    • Training for Educational Administrators, including Head Teachers.
    • Orientation / Induction Training to Teacher Educators
  3. Continuation of support to CTEs and establishment of new CTEs
  4. Continuation of support to IASEs and establishment of new IASEs
  5. Continuation of support to and restructuring of DIETs;
  6. Establishment of Block Institutes of Teacher Education (BITEs) for augmenting Teacher Education capacity in SC/ST and minority concentration areas
  7. Professional Development of Teacher Educators
  8. Technology in Teacher Education
  9. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in teacher education
  10. Monitoring mechanism

National Curriculum Framework on Teacher Education
The National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE) has prepared the National Curriculum Framework of Teacher Education, which was circulated in March 2009. This Framework has been prepared in the background of the NCF, 2005 and the principles laid down in the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 which necessitated an altered framework on Teacher Education which would be consistent with the changed philosophy of school curriculum recommended in the NCF, 2005.
While articulating the vision of teacher education, the Framework has some important dimensions of the new approach to teacher education, as under.
  1. Reflective practice to be the central aim of teacher education
  2. Student-teachers should be provided opportunities for self-learning, reflection, assimilation and articulation of new ideas;
  3. Developing capacities for self-directed learning and ability to think, be critical and to work in groups.
  4. Providing opportunities to student-teachers to observe and engage with children, communicate with and relate to children.
The Framework has highlighted the focus, specific objectives, broad areas of study in terms of theoretical and practical learnings, and curricular transaction and assessment strategies for the various initial teacher education programmes. The draft also outlines the basic issues that should guide formulation of all programmes of these courses.
The Framework has made several recommendations on the approach and methodology of in-service teacher training programmes and has also outlined a strategy for implementation of the Framework.
As a natural corollary to the NCFTE, the NCTE has also developed ‘model’ syllabi for various teacher education courses.

Reforms in Regulatory Framework
The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) was constituted under the National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993 for achieving planning and coordinated development of teacher education in the country, for regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system. In the recent past the NCTE has undertaken various steps for systemic improvements in its functioning and in improving the teacher education system, as under :
  1. Based on the study of demand and supply of teachers and teacher educators of the various states, the NCTE has decided not to receive further applications for several teacher education courses in respect of 13 States. This has led to substantial rationalisation in the demand-supply situation across States;
  2. (b) The Regulations for grant of recognition and norms and standards for various teacher education courses were revised and notified on 31st August, 2009. The applications for grant of recognition are now processed strictly in chronological order. The new Regulations make the system more transparent, expedient and time bound, with reduction in discretionary powers of the Regional Committees;
  3. e-Governance system has been introduced by way of providing online facility for furnishing of applications and online payment of fees. MIS has been developed to streamline the process of recognition;
  4. The National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education has been developed keeping in view NCF, 2005;
  5. Academic support is being provided through preparation of Manual for the teacher education institutions and publication and dissemination of Thematic Papers on Teacher Education.
  6. Various quality control mechanisms have been developed, including re-composition of the Visiting Teams, periodical monitoring of the teacher education institutions and de-recognition of institutions not conforming to the Norms and Standards prescribed by the NCTE.